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$
12.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: TM-MUB73-NVH
Brand: Tesla
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Tesla MUB73 Cool Dry Short Sleeve Compression T-Shirt - Small - Navy/Charcoal Tesla MUB73 Cool Dry Mesh Side Short Sleeve Compression T-Shirt Color: Navy/Charcoal Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Tesla MUB73 Cool Dry Mesh Side Short Sleeve Compression T-Shirt is made using a world-class manufacturing process with tighter streamline and thicker fabric for optimum muscle support. Ideal for a variety of year-round sports and activities, this high performance style is specially geared for professionals. The MUB73 series is expert-level compression formed with a body temperature-regulated design. Constructed with superb and durable functional fabric materials, this shirt features Stretch Mesh structures for elasticity and ventilation, providing comfort without sacrificing function.Order one size up for regular fitOrder usual size for extreme compression fit87% Polyester-13% SpandexItem Style MUB73Dual colored mesh side panels for ultimate ventilationExcellent elasticity with enhanced range of motionSuperior sweat-absorbent materials activate quick-drying functionShields ultraviolet rays by more than 99% (UPF50+)Antibacterial and deodorization function do not leave an unpleasant smell behind from sweat and dust3-D patterned design for improved performance, muscle endurance and resilienceTechnically tailored for upper tier level sportsBody mapped form fitting for single layering or multi-layeringStylish and fashionable, ideal for everyday wear even on the coldest of environments Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
12.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: TM-MUB73-BKH
Brand: Tesla
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Tesla MUB73 Cool Dry Short Sleeve Compression T-Shirt - Medium - Black/Charcoal Tesla MUB73 Cool Dry Mesh Side Short Sleeve Compression T-Shirt Color: Black/Charcoal Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Tesla Men's MUB73 Cool Dry Antibacterial Short Sleeve Compression Shirt is made from world-class manufacturing process with tighter streamline and thicker fabric for optimum muscle support. Ideal for all kinds of sports and activities all year round. High performance style specially geared for professionals. The MUB73 series is expert-level compression formed with a body temperature-regulated design. Constructed with superb and durable functional fabric materials. Featuring Stretch Mesh structures for elasticity and ventilation, providing comfort without sacrificing function.Order one size up for Regular fitOrder usual size for Extreme Compression fit87% Polyester-13% SpandexItem Style #MUB73Dual colored mesh side panels for ultimate ventilation Excellent elasticity with enhanced range of motionSuperior sweat-absorbent materials activtate quick-drying functionShields ultraviolet rays by more than 99% (UPF50+)Anti-bacteria and deodorization function do not leave an unpleasant smell behind from sweat and dust3-D patterned design for improved performance, muscle endurance and resilienceTechnically tailored for upper tier level sportsBody mapped form fitting for single layering or multi-layeringStylish and fashionable, ideal for everyday wear even on the coldest of environments Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
14.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
Brand: Tesla
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Compression Tights - Small - Blue/Navy Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Baselayer Sports Compression Tights Color: Blue/Navy Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Tesla Men's MUC78 Cool Dry 3/4-Length Baselayer Compression Pants are made from a world-class manufacturing process with tighter streamline and thicker fabric for optimum muscle support. The Tesla MUC78 Series is technically tailored for upper tier level sports featuring expert-level compression formed with a body temperature-regulated design. High performance style specially geared for professionals targets maximum muscle endurance and post-workout recovery. Constructed with superb and durable functional fabric materials. Featuring Stretch Mesh structures for elasticity and ventilation, providing comfort without sacrificing function. Order one size up for Regular fit Order usual size for Extreme compression fitExcellent elasticity with enhanced range of motionFlat-lock seam system devoid of friction, it assures a great deal of comfortShields ultraviolet rays by more than 99% (UPF50+)Anti-bacterial and deodorization properties prevent any unpleasant odors left behind from sweat and/or dustFour-way stretch provides flexibility in every direction while making you feel comfortable under any movementsCompression for early recovery, prevents muscle strain, and improves overall performanceEarly recovery helps you to recuperate faster after a workout by controlling blood flow and preventing swellingCompression Fit - In times of muscle exercise, this fabric's strong pressure will allow you out perform by alleviating muscle spasmsUltra-lightweight unlike many other sports pantsBody mapped form fitting, creating the perfect fit that is great for single or multi-layeringStylish and fashionable, ideal for everyday wear even on the coldest of environmentsHelps prevent chafing and rashesInner and base layers are designed to draw sweat away from the body to the next layerDesigned for professional athletes as well as the general public Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Extra Heavy (Gray) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
27.51
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: JBANDS-ADULT
Brand: Jaeger Sports
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Jaeger Sports J-Bands Pitching Resistance Training Bands - Adult - Light Blue Jaeger Sports J-Bands Adult Baseball Pitching Resistance Training Bands Size: Reg Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Jaeger Sports J-Bands Baseball Pitching Resistance Training Bands are an essential part of the workout for any player whose goal is to have a long and healthy career. Prevent injuries, strengthen muscles, and increase pitching stamina all while maintaining excellent arm strength. Great for warm-up and recovery, the bands are a must for any athlete. Great for warm-up and recoveryCritical to promote blood flow to your shoulders and arm both before and after throwing Bands are pitching aids for more powerful throwing Padded wrist cuff for easy movement through the arm’s range of motionMetal clip for easy attachment and anchoring11-Exercise routine: Over-the-head Forearm Extensions, Side Extensions, Diagonal Extensions, Forward Flies, Reverse Flies, Internal Rotation, External Rotation, Elevated Internal Rotation, Elevated Internal Rotation (Alternative), Elevated External Rotation, Reverse Throwing, Forward Throwing MotionThe eleven step J-Band exercise routine is designed to balance, strengthen and condition the rotator cuff and surrounding muscle groupsThe rotator cuff exercise program is the key to preventing arm injuries while promoting arm health, strength, endurance and recovery periodWorkout Reminders and Warnings:Exercises are to be done PRIOR to throwing (or on average of 3-5 days a week during periods of time off)One set of 25 repetitions per exercise (Exercises 2 and 3 involve using the breath while stretching in 30 second increments)BE SURE that the silver clip is NEVER in alignment with your face or headThe J-Band is not a toy and should not be used in any way other than the exercises that it is designed forThe J-Band™ is NOT to be stretched more than one-to-two feet of its original length — even for the strongest of students Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition/b> Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
14.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
Brand: Tesla
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Compression Tights - Large - Black/Charcoal Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Baselayer Sports Compression Tights Color: Black/Charcoal Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Tesla Men's MUC78 Cool Dry 3/4-Length Baselayer Compression Pants are made from a world-class manufacturing process with tighter streamline and thicker fabric for optimum muscle support. The Tesla MUC78 Series is technically tailored for upper tier level sports featuring expert-level compression formed with a body temperature-regulated design. High performance style specially geared for professionals targets maximum muscle endurance and post-workout recovery. Constructed with superb and durable functional fabric materials. Featuring Stretch Mesh structures for elasticity and ventilation, providing comfort without sacrificing function. Order one size up for Regular fit Order usual size for Extreme compression fitExcellent elasticity with enhanced range of motionFlat-lock seam system devoid of friction, it assures a great deal of comfortShields ultraviolet rays by more than 99% (UPF50+)Anti-bacterial and deodorization properties prevent any unpleasant odors left behind from sweat and/or dustFour-way stretch provides flexibility in every direction while making you feel comfortable under any movementsCompression for early recovery, prevents muscle strain, and improves overall performanceEarly recovery helps you to recuperate faster after a workout by controlling blood flow and preventing swellingCompression Fit - In times of muscle exercise, this fabric's strong pressure will allow you out perform by alleviating muscle spasmsUltra-lightweight unlike many other sports pantsBody mapped form fitting, creating the perfect fit that is great for single or multi-layeringStylish and fashionable, ideal for everyday wear even on the coldest of environmentsHelps prevent chafing and rashesInner and base layers are designed to draw sweat away from the body to the next layerDesigned for professional athletes as well as the general public Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
11.15
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Hand Exerciser - Light (Blue) Gripmaster Hand Exerciser Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Strengthen weaker fingers for superior hitting, throwing, and fieldingChallenges each finger individually using patented spring-loaded finger piston technologyGreatly improves hand, wrist and forearm strength Isolating each finger so it can be exercised individually, the patented Gripmaster strengthens hands, wrists, and forearms with spring-loaded piston technology while ensuring the palm doesn't slip from a molded grip. Sturdy and highly durable, the Gripmaster easily fits in pocket or purse, enabling hand exercise anytime, anywhere. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. You'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on end. Exercising with the Gripmaster is the most efficient and effective way to maintain the health and conditioning of the hand. It's the ideal way to maintain the suppleness and flexibility of the hand to prevent injury. Each finger of the hand is powered by a completely separate system of muscles and tendons located in the hand, wrist, and forearm. The ability to control the ball or control the bat, racquet, or club all starts with the hands. Your hand is really five separate systems which work in seamless unity. The only way to develop superior strength, endurance, and coordination in your hands is to challenge and develop each finger individually. Once you exercise with Gripmaster you'll notice a difference almost immediately. Tension (lbs per finger): XX-Light - 1.5 lbs Extra Light - 3 lbs Light - 5 lbs Medium - 7 lbs Heavy - 9 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
14.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
Brand: Tesla
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Compression Tights - Large - Navy/Charcoal Tesla MUC78 Cool Dry Mesh 3/4-Length Baselayer Sports Compression Tights Color: Navy/Charcoal Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Tesla Men's MUC78 Cool Dry 3/4-Length Baselayer Compression Pants are made from a world-class manufacturing process with tighter streamline and thicker fabric for optimum muscle support. The Tesla MUC78 Series is technically tailored for upper tier level sports featuring expert-level compression formed with a body temperature-regulated design. High performance style specially geared for professionals targets maximum muscle endurance and post-workout recovery. Constructed with superb and durable functional fabric materials. Featuring Stretch Mesh structures for elasticity and ventilation, providing comfort without sacrificing function. Order one size up for Regular fit Order usual size for Extreme compression fitExcellent elasticity with enhanced range of motionFlat-lock seam system devoid of friction, it assures a great deal of comfortShields ultraviolet rays by more than 99% (UPF50+)Anti-bacterial and deodorization properties prevent any unpleasant odors left behind from sweat and/or dustFour-way stretch provides flexibility in every direction while making you feel comfortable under any movementsCompression for early recovery, prevents muscle strain, and improves overall performanceEarly recovery helps you to recuperate faster after a workout by controlling blood flow and preventing swellingCompression Fit - In times of muscle exercise, this fabric's strong pressure will allow you out perform by alleviating muscle spasmsUltra-lightweight unlike many other sports pantsBody mapped form fitting, creating the perfect fit that is great for single or multi-layeringStylish and fashionable, ideal for everyday wear even on the coldest of environmentsHelps prevent chafing and rashesInner and base layers are designed to draw sweat away from the body to the next layerDesigned for professional athletes as well as the general public Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
11.15
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Hand Exerciser - Light (Blue) Gripmaster Hand Exerciser Color: Blue Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Strengthen weaker fingers for superior hitting, throwing, and fieldingChallenges each finger individually using patented spring-loaded finger piston technologyGreatly improves hand, wrist and forearm strength Isolating each finger so it can be exercised individually, the patented Gripmaster strengthens hands, wrists, and forearms with spring-loaded piston technology while ensuring the palm doesn't slip from a molded grip. Sturdy and highly durable, the Gripmaster easily fits in pocket or purse, enabling hand exercise anytime, anywhere. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. You'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on end. Exercising with the Gripmaster is the most efficient and effective way to maintain the health and conditioning of the hand. It's the ideal way to maintain the suppleness and flexibility of the hand to prevent injury. Each finger of the hand is powered by a completely separate system of muscles and tendons located in the hand, wrist, and forearm. The ability to control the ball or control the bat, racquet, or club all starts with the hands. Your hand is really five separate systems which work in seamless unity. The only way to develop superior strength, endurance, and coordination in your hands is to challenge and develop each finger individually. Once you exercise with Gripmaster you'll notice a difference almost immediately. Tension (lbs per finger): XX-Light - 1.5 lbs Extra Light - 3 lbs Light - 5 lbs Medium - 7 lbs Heavy - 9 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
14.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: LL5C
Brand: Lifeline USA
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Lifeline USA Interchangeable 5' Cable - 100 lb. Resistance - Black Lifeline USA Interchangeable 5' Resistance Cable Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Lifeline Interchangeable 5’ Resistance Cables are made using Progressive Layering Technology so they feel better and last longer than common fitness cables. Resistance training induces muscular contraction which builds strength and anaerobic endurance and increases bone density, improves metabolism and decreases risk of injury. Use different bands to create unique exercises and ranges of motion - or move up to the next resistance level for added challenge and continued strength, endurance and performance gains. FEATURESProgressive Layering Technology makes bands comfortable and lastingBands are color-coded and easily identifiedSimple interchangeable processWorks with a variety of Lifeline handles and mounts for a customized workoutIncludes one (1) 5' cable BENEFITSVariety of bands provide for diverse exercisesDiversity of use provides strengthening for almost the entire bodySpeed and agility improvements Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Orange Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
11.15
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Hand Exerciser - XX-Light (Green) Gripmaster Hand Exerciser Color: Green Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Strengthen weaker fingers for superior hitting, throwing, and fieldingChallenges each finger individually using patented spring-loaded finger piston technologyGreatly improves hand, wrist and forearm strength Isolating each finger so it can be exercised individually, the patented Gripmaster strengthens hands, wrists, and forearms with spring-loaded piston technology while ensuring the palm doesn't slip from a molded grip. Sturdy and highly durable, the Gripmaster easily fits in pocket or purse, enabling hand exercise anytime, anywhere. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. You'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on end. Exercising with the Gripmaster is the most efficient and effective way to maintain the health and conditioning of the hand. It's the ideal way to maintain the suppleness and flexibility of the hand to prevent injury. Each finger of the hand is powered by a completely separate system of muscles and tendons located in the hand, wrist, and forearm. The ability to control the ball or control the bat, racquet, or club all starts with the hands. Your hand is really five separate systems which work in seamless unity. The only way to develop superior strength, endurance, and coordination in your hands is to challenge and develop each finger individually. Once you exercise with Gripmaster you'll notice a difference almost immediately. Tension (lbs per finger): XX-Light - 1.5 lbs Extra Light - 3 lbs Light - 5 lbs Medium - 7 lbs Heavy - 9 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
34.95
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: JBANDS-YOUTH
Brand: Jaeger Sports
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Jaeger Sports J-Bands Pitching Resistance Training Bands - Youth - Royal Jaeger Sports J-Bands Youth Baseball Pitching Resistance Training Bands Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Jaeger Sports J-Bands Baseball Pitching Resistance Training Bands are an essential part of the workout for any player whose goal is to have a long and healthy career. Prevent injuries, strengthen muscles, and increase pitching stamina all while maintaining excellent arm strength. Great for warm-up and recovery, the bands are a must for any athlete. Great for warm-up and recoveryCritical to promote blood flow to your shoulders and arm both before and after throwing Bands are pitching aids for more powerful throwing Padded wrist cuff for easy movement through the arm’s range of motionMetal clip for easy attachment and anchoring11-Exercise routine: Over-the-head Forearm Extensions, Side Extensions, Diagonal Extensions, Forward Flies, Reverse Flies, Internal Rotation, External Rotation, Elevated Internal Rotation, Elevated Internal Rotation (Alternative), Elevated External Rotation, Reverse Throwing, Forward Throwing MotionThe eleven step J-Band exercise routine is designed to balance, strengthen and condition the rotator cuff and surrounding muscle groupsThe rotator cuff exercise program is the key to preventing arm injuries while promoting arm health, strength, endurance and recovery periodWorkout Reminders and Warnings:Exercises are to be done PRIOR to throwing (or on average of 3-5 days a week during periods of time off)One set of 25 repetitions per exercise (Exercises 2 and 3 involve using the breath while stretching in 30 second increments)BE SURE that the silver clip is NEVER in alignment with your face or headThe J-Band is not a toy and should not be used in any way other than the exercises that it is designed forThe J-Band™ is NOT to be stretched more than one-to-two feet of its original length — even for the strongest of students Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
8.92
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Condition: New
Location: Rochester,NY,USA
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
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& Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo 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FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Extra Heavy (Gray) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Gray Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
11.15
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Hand Exerciser - X-Light (Yellow) Gripmaster Hand Exerciser Color: Yellow Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Strengthen weaker fingers for superior hitting, throwing, and fieldingChallenges each finger individually using patented spring-loaded finger piston technologyGreatly improves hand, wrist and forearm strength Isolating each finger so it can be exercised individually, the patented Gripmaster strengthens hands, wrists, and forearms with spring-loaded piston technology while ensuring the palm doesn't slip from a molded grip. Sturdy and highly durable, the Gripmaster easily fits in pocket or purse, enabling hand exercise anytime, anywhere. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. You'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on end. Exercising with the Gripmaster is the most efficient and effective way to maintain the health and conditioning of the hand. It's the ideal way to maintain the suppleness and flexibility of the hand to prevent injury. Each finger of the hand is powered by a completely separate system of muscles and tendons located in the hand, wrist, and forearm. The ability to control the ball or control the bat, racquet, or club all starts with the hands. Your hand is really five separate systems which work in seamless unity. The only way to develop superior strength, endurance, and coordination in your hands is to challenge and develop each finger individually. Once you exercise with Gripmaster you'll notice a difference almost immediately. Tension (lbs per finger): XX-Light - 1.5 lbs Extra Light - 3 lbs Light - 5 lbs Medium - 7 lbs Heavy - 9 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
59.99
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$4.99 Shipping
Condition: Used
Location: Canton,MA,USA
$
599.99
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Condition: New
Location: Levittown,PA,USA
Brand: Garmin
Multisport GPS Watch with Full-color Map GuidanceUltimate multisport GPS watch with full-color TOPO U.S. mapping, routable cycling maps and other outdoor navigation featuresFit for adventure with rugged design that features stainless steel bezel, buttons and rear caseBuilt-in navigation sensors include GPS and GLONASS capability to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone as well as 3-axis compass, gyroscope and barometric altimeterPut key stats at your fingertips with the performance ... morewidget that shows your training status, training load and moreConnected features² include smart notifications, automatic uploads to Garmin Connect™ online fitness community and personalization through free watch faces and apps from our Connect IQ™ storeBattery life: up to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings), up to 20 hours in GPS mode or up to 35 hours in UltraTrac™ battery saver mode Combining world-class performance with the best features of our fitness and outdoor watches, fēnix 5X is the premiere multisport training companion. It’s the first fēnix series watch to offer full-color TOPO U.S. mapping for at-a-glance navigation and location reference – so you can beat yesterday, and be sure of getting back. You get advanced features such as Elevate™ wrist heart rate technology¹, built-in activity profiles, performance metrics and training status readings that show the fitness-enhancing effects of your workout. Smart notifications² help you stay in touch on the go. Plus, QuickFit® bands let you tailor the look to any lifestyle or activity – no tools required. Go from workplace to workout without breaking stride. Rugged Endurance, Elegant StyleThe fēnix 5X multisport watch features a protective PVD-coated stainless steel bezel and buttons and a reinforced housing for extra durability. Each watch is water-rated to 100 meters and features advanced GPS and GLONASS satellite reception to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone. You can count on long battery life in each mode of operation (varies by model, depending on settings). A bright, high-resolution, full-color Garmin Chroma Display™ with LED backlighting assures great readability in all ambient conditions – from harsh daylight to dim lighting. Transflective technology that reflects and transmits light at the same time enables the watch face to become even more readable under intense sunlight. Sapphire editions feature a scratch-resistant sapphire lens and are also Wi-Fi®-enabled so your watch can connect to your wireless network and automatically send activity uploads for sharing on Garmin Connect. Wrist-based Heart RateOn your wrist, Elevate wrist heart rate technology lets you monitor your heart rate without wearing a chest strap. In addition to counting steps and monitoring sleep, the watch uses heart rate to provide calories burned information and quantify the intensity of your fitness activities. Monitor Your Performance, Training and RecoveryJust how effective is your current training plan? fēnix 5X will help you monitor your training and recovery so you can better prepare for a race or training cycle. Training status is a new performance monitoring tool that automatically evaluates your recent exercise history and performance indicators to let you know if you’re training productively, peaking or overreaching. The new anaerobic training effect metric opens a window of insight to a critical dimension of training, telling you how your training is improving your ability to push the limits. You can even view your overall training load, which measures your exercise volume from the last 7 days and compares it to the optimal range for your fitness and recent training history. Analyze Your TechniqueWe’re making it easier to get the data you need to improve your form. Let fēnix 5X measure crucial running metrics² that you can use to analyze your performance. Biomechanical measurements such as cadence, stride length, ground contact time and balance, vertical oscillation and vertical ratio are the key to understanding your form so you can bring your best on race day. These metrics are available with the addition of a compatible heart rate strap² or the compact Running Dynamics Pod, which clips right onto your waistband. Also, take advantage of feature sets to help with cycling and even swim training. In the water, fēnix 5X will track your distance, pace, stroke count and more. Swim Profiles, Skiing, Paddle Sports, Golf and MoreBeyond their running functions, fenix 5 watches also offer special feature sets to help with swim training, skiing, golfing and paddle sports, including stand-up paddle boarding and rowing. For swimmers, the device tracks your distance, pace, stroke count and more. Ski/Board mode puts speed, distance, vertical drop and an automatic run counter (with Auto Pause for the lift line) and more at your fingertips. The feature set for paddle sports includes stroke count, stroke rate and even distance per stroke. Golf mode gives you yardage to the front, back and middle of the green for any single course you’ve downloaded from Garmin Connect – and also adds enhancements such as stat tracking (fairways hit, etc.), Green View, AutoShot detection and auto measure. Navigate the Great Outdoors, Your WayEach model in the fēnix 5 series provides comprehensive navigation and tracking to guide you on and off the beaten path using GPS plus ABC (altimeter, barometer and compass) sensor capabilities. The built-in altimeter provides elevation data to accurately monitor ascent and descent, while the barometer can be used to predict weather changes by showing short-term trends in air pressure. The 3-axis electronic compass keeps your bearing, whether you’re moving or not. In addition, there’s an internal gyroscope to help improve position accuracy (and battery life) in UltraTrac mode – as well as a thermometer to help you monitor changing weather conditions. So Many Ways to Stay ConnectedAll fēnix 5 series models can support smart notifications when paired with a compatible device. Receive emails, texts and alerts right on your watch – whether you're on the trail, on the golf course or simply away from your desk. Other connected features include automatic uploads to our Garmin Connect online fitness community, live tracking and social media sharing through our free Garmin Connect and Garmin Connect™ Mobile applications. Custom Apps and Watch FacesYou can customize your fēnix 5X watch with free downloads from our Connect IQ store. Change your watch face, add data fields or get apps and widgets for information at a glance. Garmin is continually working with top companies and developers to build partnerships that add even more value to your fēnix multisport watch. Names such as Uber, Strava, AccuWeather and many others offer apps and enhancements that let you tailor your fēnix 5X to fit your lifestyle in more ways than ever. Wear Your Personality on Your SleeveYou can also download the free Garmin Face It™ watch face app to customize your fēnix 5X with any photo from your smartphone. Just download the app, choose an image from your photo library, adjust the style for time and set it as your watch’s face. Whether it’s a scenic view from your last hike or a picture of your new puppy, with Garmin you can add personality to your watch that’s uniquely you. Running PowerAdd power data to your training by downloading our Running Power app from the Connect IQ™ store onto your compatible watch. Developed by Garmin Labs, the Running Power app taps into metrics — such as pace, vertical oscillation, grade and even local wind conditions — to determine the amount of power you’re applying at the ground as you run. When you know how much power you’re expending from minute to minute and mile to mile, you’re better able to pace yourself, which can help keep you from tiring out too quickly. The best news? If you already own the right Garmin devices, adding power to your run is free. All you need is a fēnix® 5X and 1 of these 3 accessories: HRM-Run™, HRM-Tri™ or the Running Dynamics Pod. Learn more. A Full-color Roadmap to SuccessWhether you’re in the city or on the trail, an array of fēnix 5X on-watch mapping and navigation features help keep you oriented and on-course at a glance. Full-color TOPO U.S. mapping that comes preloaded; map data is optimized for at-a-glance navigation and location tracking on your wristRound-trip Run and Round-trip Ride routing options give runners and cyclists the ability to enter a distance they want to travel and have the watch suggest appropriate coursesEasy-to-read guidance cues provide banners on the display that show upcoming turnsAround Me map mode displays locations nearby in a simplified graphical interface that increases awareness and ease when navigating in unfamiliar environmentsData overlays on the map highlight key information so you don’t have to switch screens while in an activityGroupTrack allows you to keep tabs on your buddies for adventures such as skiing; LiveTrack allows friends to follow your adventures in real time² WARNING: This product contains lead, a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals 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SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Heavy (Black) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Black Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
13.30
3d 13h 4m 7s
0 bids
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Henryville,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Medium (Red) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Red Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
591.99
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: Manufacturer refurbished
Location: Las Vegas,NV,USA
MPN: 010-01733-00
Brand: Garmin
Manufacturer DescriptionMultisport GPS Watch with Full-color Map GuidanceUltimate multisport GPS watch with full-color TOPO U.S. mapping, routable cycling maps and other outdoor navigation featuresFit for adventure with rugged design that features stainless steel bezel, buttons and rear caseBuilt-in navigation sensors include GPS and GLONASS capability to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone as well as 3-axis compass, gyroscope and barometric altimeterPut key stats at your fingertips ... morewith the performance widget that shows your training status, training load and moreConnected features² include smart notifications, automatic uploads to Garmin Connect™ online fitness community and personalization through free watch faces and apps from our Connect IQ™ store Combining world-class performance with the best features of our fitness and outdoor watches, fēnix 5X is the premiere multisport training companion. It’s the first fēnix series watch to offer full-color TOPO U.S. mapping for at-a-glance navigation and location reference – so you can beat yesterday, and be sure of getting back. You get advanced features such as Elevate™ wrist heart rate technology¹, built-in activity profiles, performance metrics and training status readings that show the fitness-enhancing effects of your workout. Smart notifications² help you stay in touch on the go. Plus, QuickFit™ bands let you tailor the look to any lifestyle or activity – no tools required. Go from workplace to workout without breaking stride.Rugged Endurance, Elegant Style The fēnix 5X multisport watch features a protective PVD-coated stainless steel bezel and buttons and a reinforced housing for extra durability. Each watch is water-rated to 100 meters and features advanced GPS and GLONASS satellite reception to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone. You can count on long battery life in each mode of operation (varies by model, depending on settings). A bright, high-resolution, full-color Garmin Chroma Display™ with LED backlighting assures great readability in all ambient conditions – from harsh daylight to dim lighting. Transflective technology that reflects and transmits light at the same time enables the watch face to become even more readable under intense sunlight. Sapphire editions feature a scratch-resistant sapphire lens and are also Wi-Fi®-enabled so your watch can connect to your wireless network and automatically send activity uploads for sharing on Garmin Connect.Wrist-based Heart Rate¹ On your wrist, Elevate wrist heart rate technology lets you monitor your heart rate without wearing a chest strap. In addition to counting steps and monitoring sleep, the watch uses heart rate to provide calories burned information and quantify the intensity of your fitness activities.A Full-color Roadmap to Success Whether you’re in the city or on the trail, an array of fēnix 5X on-watch mapping and navigation features help keep you oriented and on-course at a glance.Full-color TOPO U.S. mapping that comes preloaded; map data is optimized for at-a-glance navigation and location tracking on your wristRound-trip Run and Round-trip Ride routing options give runners and cyclists the ability to enter a distance they want to travel and have the watch suggest appropriate coursesEasy-to-read guidance cues provide banners on the display that show upcoming turnsAround Me map mode displays locations nearby in a simplified graphical interface that increases awareness and ease when navigating in unfamiliar environmentsData overlays on the map highlight key information so you don’t have to switch screens while in an activityGroupTrack allows you to keep tabs on your buddies for adventures such as skiing; LiveTrack allows friends to follow your adventures in real time²Advanced Performance Metrics Every fēnix 5X watch is packed with sophisticated training features to help monitor your form and performance³. Enhanced readouts for Training Status and Training Effect show aerobic and anaerobic benefits of your workout – so you can see how your workouts are paying off and even compare results with your peers. The VO2 max estimator crunches data, including your running speed, beats per minute and heart rate variability, to estimate the maximum volume of oxygen you can consume per minute. And other fitness metrics include recovery advisor with a recovery timer and recovery check, plus a race predictor that estimates your ideal finish time based on your current VO2 max number.Advanced Running Dynamics Now you can go further with your running data. Garmin training features that tap into extended physiological metrics and advanced running dynamics¹ can help improve your form and overall performance. These include:Performance condition: After running for 6-20 minutes, fēnix 5X compares your real-time condition to your average fitness levelsLactate threshold: Through analysis of your pace and heart rate, fēnix 5X estimates the point where your muscles start to rapidly fatigueCadence — number of steps per minuteStride length — shows your stride length in real time Want more? By pairing your watch with a compatible heart rate chest strap such as the HRM-Run™, you can access these additional fēnix 5X metrics³:Vertical oscillation and ratio — the degree of 'bounce' in your running motion and the benefit ratio to stride lengthGround contact time and balance — shows how much time, in the running motion, your foot is on the ground rather than in flight and lets you check your running symmetryStress score: fēnix 5X measures your heart rate variability while standing still, for 3 minutes, to provide you with an estimated stress level. The scale of this is 1 to 100; low scores indicate lower stress levelsSwim Profiles, Skiing, Paddle Sports, Golf and More Beyond their running functions, fenix 5 watches also offer special feature sets to help with swim training, skiing, golfing and paddle sports, including stand-up paddle boarding and rowing. For swimmers, the device tracks your distance, pace, stroke count and more. Ski/Board mode puts speed, distance, vertical drop and an automatic run counter (with Auto Pause for the lift line) and more at your fingertips. The feature set for paddle sports includes stroke count, stroke rate and even distance per stroke. Golf mode gives you yardage to the front, back and middle of the green for any single course you’ve downloaded from Garmin Connect – and also adds enhancements such as stat tracking (fairways hit, etc.), Green View, AutoShot detection and auto measure.Navigate the Great Outdoors, Your Way Each model in the fēnix 5 series provides comprehensive navigation and tracking to guide you on and off the beaten path using GPS plus ABC (altimeter, barometer and compass) sensor capabilities. The built-in altimeter provides elevation data to accurately monitor ascent and descent, while the barometer can be used to predict weather changes by showing short-term trends in air pressure. The 3-axis electronic compass keeps your bearing, whether you’re moving or not. In addition, there’s an internal gyroscope to help improve position accuracy (and battery life) in UltraTrac™ mode – as well as a thermometer to help you monitor changing weather conditions.So Many Ways to Stay Connected All fēnix 5 series models can support smart notifications when paired with a compatible device. Receive emails, texts and alerts right on your watch – whether you're on the trail, on the golf course or simply away from your desk. Other connected features include automatic uploads to our Garmin Connect online fitness community, live tracking and social media sharing through our free Garmin Connect and Garmin Connect™ Mobile applications.Custom Apps and Watch Faces You can customize your fēnix 5X watch with free downloads from our Connect IQ store. Change your watch face, add data fields or get apps and widgets for information at a glance. Garmin is continually working with top companies and developers to build partnerships that add even more value to your fēnix multisport watch. Names such as Uber, Strava, AccuWeather and many others offer apps and enhancements that let you tailor your fēnix 5X to fit your lifestyle in more ways than ever.Wear Your Personality on Your Sleeve You can also download the free Garmin Face-It™ watch face app to customize your fēnix with any photo from your smartphone. Just download the app, choose an image from your photo library, adjust the style for time and set it as your watch’s face. Whether it’s a scenic view from your last hike or a picture of your new puppy, with Garmin you can add personality to your watch that’s uniquely you.What's Included In The Box?The Garmin fenix 5X Slate Gray Sapphire with Metal Band ships with the following items included: fēnix 5X SapphireExtra silicone Black QuickFit™ 26 watch bandCharging/data cableDocumentationFeatures and TipsHere is a list of fenix 5X Slate Gray Sapphire with Metal Band features, along with a few user tips. Physical & PerformancePhysical dimensions2.0” x 2.0” x 0.7” (51.0 x 51.0 x 17.5 mm)Display size, WxH1.2” (30.5 mm) diameterDisplay resolution, WxH240 x 240 pixels; sunlight-visible, always-on, low power, colorful displayColor display: yesNegative mode display: yesWeightWith silicone band: 3.5 oz (98.0 g)BatteryRechargeable lithium-ionBattery lifeUp to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings), up to 20 hours in GPS mode, and up to 50 hours in UltraTrac battery saver modeWater rating10 ATMGPS-enabled: yesGLONASS: yesHigh-sensitivity receiver: yesBarometric altimeter: yesElectronic compass: yesSmart notifications (displays email, text and other alerts when paired with your compatible phone): yesVibration alert: yesMusic control: yesFind my phone: yesVIRB® control: yesWatch functionsTime of day (12/24h), calendar (day/date), daily alarm,stop watch, timer, sunrise/sunset alertsMaps & MemoryBuilt-in memory12 GBCustom POIs (ability to add additional points of interest): yesWaypoints/favorites/locations1,000Routes30Track log10,000 points; 100 saved tracksRunning FeaturesVirtual Pacer™ (compares current pace to target): yesV02 max estimate: yesRecovery advisor: yesRace predictor: yesRunning dynamics: yesAccelerometer (calculates distance for indoor workouts, without need for a foot pod): yesPersonal records: yesCycling FeaturesCompatible with Vector™: yesMultiple bike profiles: yesBike speed/cadence sensorYes (optional)Performance FeaturesHeart rate monitorYes (wrist-based)Virtual Partner® (train against a digital person): yesVirtual Racer™ (compete against other activities): yesCourses (compete against previous activities): yesAuto Pause® (pauses and resumes timer based on speed): yesAuto Lap® (automatically starts a new lap): yesAuto Scroll (cycles through data pages during workout): yesMulti-sport (changes sport mode with a press of a button): yesAuto multisport (switch sport modes with 1 button press): yesAdvanced workouts (create custom, goal-oriented workouts): yesPace alert (triggers alarm if you vary from preset pace): yesTime/distance alert (triggers alarm when you reach goal): yesInterval training (set up exercise and rest intervals): yesHeart rate-based calorie computation: yesCalculates calories burned: yesTraining Effect (measures impact of an activity on your aerobic fitness): yesCustomizable screen(s): yesPower meter compatible (displays power data from compatible 3rd party ANT+™-enabled power meters): yesSwimming FeaturesPool swim metrics (lengths, distance, pace, stroke count/rate, calories): yesStroke recognition: yesOpen water swim metrics (distance, pace, stroke count/rate, calories): yesSwim workouts: yesGolfing FeaturesMeasures shot distance (calculates exact yardage for shots from anywhere on course): yesYardage to F/M/B (distance to front, middle and back of green): yesYardage to layups/doglegs: yesDigital scorecard: yesOutdoor FeaturesHunt/fish calendar: yesSun and moon information: yesArea calculation: yesActivity Tracking FeaturesStep counter: yesAuto goal (learns your activity level and assigns a daily step goal): yesMove bar (displays on device after a period of inactivity; walk for a couple of minutes to reset it): yesSleep monitoring (monitors total sleep and periods of movement or restful sleep): yesGarmin Connect®Garmin Connect™ compatible (online community where you analyze, categorize and share data): yesAutomatic sync (automatically transfers data to your computer): yesAdditionalMaps: Preloaded topographic and cycling maps, plus more than 40,000 golf courses around the worldConnect IQ™ app support: Yes (watch faces, data fields, widgets and apps)EXO™ antenna (GPS/GLONASS): YesWi-Fi®: Yes (Sapphire versions only)ANT+®: Yes (all versions)Bluetooth®: Low Energy (all versions)Round Trip Run: YesLactate Threshold: YesPre-loaded Garmin cycling maps: YesRound Trip Ride: YesTraining Effect 2.0 (measures impact of an activity on your aerobic & anaerobic fitness): YesTraining Load: YesTraining Status: YesLactate Threshold: YesWeather Alerts: YesUltraTrac: Yestempe™ sensor support: YesTracBack: YesSki features: YesPhysiological measurements: YesSUP/Rowing: YesFoot pod: yes (optional)Specifications General1. Unit dimensions, WxHxD:2.0 in x 2.0 in x 0.7 in (51.0 x 51.0 x 17.5 mm)2. Display size, WxH:1.2 in (30.5 mm) diameter3. Display resolution, WxH:240 x 240 pixels4. Display type:Color display5. Weight:With silicone band: 3.5 oz (98.0 g)6. Battery:Rechargeable lithium-ion7. Battery life:Up to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings)8. Waterproof:Yes (IPX7)9. GPS-enabled:✔10. Floats:✘11. High-sensitivity receiver:✔12. RoHS version available:✔13. Preloaded maps:✔14. Ability to add maps:✔15. Topographic Map Compatible:✔16. Marine Software Compatible:✘17. Built-in memory:12 GB18. Waypoints/favorites/locations:100019. Touchscreen:✘20. Garmin Connect™ compatible (online community where you analyze, categorize and share data):✔21. Widescreen✘22. Custom Maps Compatible✘ Automotive23. Routes:3024. Basemap:✔25. Voice prompts (e.g. "Turn right in 500 ft."):✘26. Speaks street names (e.g. "Turn right ON ELM STREET in 500 ft.") :✘27. Speech recognition (navigate with voice commands):✘28. 3D map view:✘29. Automatic routing (turn by turn routing on roads):✘30. Auto sort multiple destinations (provides most direct route):✘31. Auto re-route (fast off-route and detour recalculation):✘32. Choice of route setup (faster time, shorter distance, off road):✘33. Route avoidance (avoid highways, tolls etc.):✘34. Custom POIs (ability to add additional points of interest):✔35. Hands-free calling with Bluetooth® wireless technology:✘36. FM traffic compatible:✘37. XM® Navtraffic (includes basic weather) & Radio for U.S. compatible:✘38. MSN® Direct for U.S. compatible:✘39. Where Am I? feature (find closest hospitals, police & gas stations, nearest address & intersection):✘40. Car locator feature (marks position when removed from windshield mount):✘41. MP3 player:✔42. Audio book player:✘43. Picture viewer:✘44. Configurable vehicle icons (select car-shaped icons for map navigation):✘45. World travel clock, currency & measurement converter, calculator:✘46. Qwerty or ABC keyboard (choose keyboard layout):✘47. Remote control:✘48. FM transmitter:✘49. Headphone jack/audio line-out:✘50. Audio/video input/output:✘51. Dead reckoning:✘52. Garmin Lock™ (anti-theft feature):✘53. Automotive-friendly:✘54. Motorcycle-friendly:✘55. Data Services with Bluetooth Technology✘56. Speed Limit Indicator✘57. Lifetime Traffic✘58. Lifetime Maps Included✘59. trafficTrends (calculates routes from predicted traffic flow)✘60. myTrends (predicts routes from user's navigation behavior)✘61. Garmin nuLink! Services (accurate real-time travel data)✘62. Multimode (switches modes to drive, hike, bike or boat)✘63. Garmin Garage vehicles compatible (download car icons)✘64. Garmin Garage voices compatible (download custom voices)✘65. Trucking-friendly✘ Outdoor66. Track log:10,000 points; 100 saved tracks67. Electronic compass:Yes (3-axis)68. Barometric altimeter:✔69. Hunt/fish calendar:✔70. Sun and moon information:✔71. Tide tables:✘72. Area calculation:✔ Fitness73. Heart rate monitor compatible:Yes (included)74. Bike speed/cadence sensor compatible:Yes (optional accessory)75. Foot pod compatible:Yes (optional accessory)76. Automatic sync (automatically transfers data to your computer):✔77. Garmin Training Center® software compatible:✔78. Virtual Partner® (train against a digital person):✔79. Courses (compete against previous workouts):✔80. Auto Pause® (pauses and resumes timer based on speed):✔81. Auto Lap® (automatically starts a new lap):✔82. Auto Scroll (cycles through data pages during workout):✔83. Multi-sport (changes sport mode with a press of a button):✔84. Advanced workouts (create custom, goal-oriented workouts):✔85. Simple workouts (input time, distance and calorie goals):✔86. Pace alert (triggers alarm if you vary from preset pace):✔87. Time/distance alert (triggers alarm when you reach goal)✔88. Interval training (set up exercise and rest intervals)✔89. Customizable screen(s)✔90. Power meter compatible (displays power data from compatible 3rd party ANT+Sport™-enabled power meters)✔91. Sport Watch✔
$
12.00
6d 10h 50m 59s
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Condition: New other (see details)
Location: Buckeye Lake,OH,USA
$
254.00
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Condition: New
Location: Duluth,GA,USA
Brand: Mass Suit
Biofreeze Pedifix Foot Care Compression Therapy Wound Care Hot & Cold Therapy Fitness Come check out our eBay Store! Mass Suit Full Body Resistance Band Training Free Shipping Features NO Platforms NO Walls Total Body Resistance Training Extreme Training for Every Sport Core Performance Training Better Balance by Resisting the Pull of the Bands on Your Body. Intensify Training up to 50% Add up to 75 lbs to your training weight The True and Only One Size Fits All Resistance Suit Increase stamina ... moreby wearing Mass Suit for long periods of time Increase stamina and endurance within a week Description The Mass Suit is a unique patented design used by many professionals to provide resistance training to your entire body by using rubber resistance training bands. The resistance starts as soon as you clip the bands while just standing before doing any type of athletic movement. The Mass resistance suit increases the resistance to your shoulders, arms, back, core, hip flex, quads, and hamstrings by attaching the Mass sleeves, straps and rubber cords to your body, elbows, hands, knees, and feet. This will create more speed, strength, power, stamina, fast twitch muscles and a more grounded stable balance while cutting calories and losing weight. By intensifying your training you with the training bands will increase the levels of your red blood cells which will amplify your endurance and muscle speed. Your breathing will also increase and that will create more oxygen intake and that too will help multiply red blood cells for increased stamina and power. The unique design of the Mass Suit is ideal for every type of athlete in every sport to intensify their training routine. The Mass Suit is adjustable which will able you to increase or decrease in resistance depending on how strong or fatigued you are. As your body adapts to your workouts and you need to pick up and push your conditioning, the Mass Suit will intensify your training up to 75% by adding more resistance to your punches, elbows, kicks, knees and core. The Mass Suit pushes your entire body to the limit. The fascinating concept of the Mass Suit is that it is mobile. You do not have to stay in one specific area. You can take the Mass Suit to train on the field, gym, MMA studios or your own home while watching workout DVD's. It caters to your specific sport or need at any time and any where. You will be far beyond any athlete in your sport if using the Mass Suit consistently. You will lose more weight than anyone else doing regular fitness routines without any additional aid. The new Performance Enhancement system of the Mass Suit is the newest way to be the BEST. Read more from other professionals on why resistance training bands is so effective for fitness training. How and What you can use and Wear with Mass SUIT: Wear with or without shoes Wear with cleats Wear without shoes on fighting mats Wear with wrist wraps Wear with Bag gloves Wear with boxing or MMA gloves Spar with it on Run with it on Kick with it on Hit with it on Swim with it on Rock climb with it on Lift weights with it on Hit speed bag with it on Hit and Kick Heavy bag with it on Use for lineman drills Strengthen your core Use for Rehabilitation Use for sports therapy Increase power, strength, speed, stamina, fast twitch, jumping, endurance, quickness and explosion Will help with weight loss Will increase cardiovascular endurance Will intensify your training up to 50% Will increase your training weight up to 70 + pounds With the hand grips on your hands are still free to catch and throw a football or baseball Sports Used with Mass SUIT Boxing Muay Thai Kickboxing Cardio Kickboxing MMA Football Basketball Baseball Soccer Lacrosse Track n' Field Swimming Waterpolo Volleyball Tennis Golf Rock Climbing Tri-Athlete Weightlifting Collegiate and Professional Sports Marines Army Navy Seals Weekend Warriors The Function of Mass Suit, Bands, and Braces The braces are connected to every major body part that is used in the functions of athletics. As you can see the braces are rapped around your elbows, hands, knees and feet. In sports these major body parts are constantly being used. The bands are connected to these braces giving resistance to those moving body parts providing an increase of pressure to create more resistance for more extreme training. The different colors of the bands indicate the type of resistance. Yellow id light resistance, Green is medium resistance and Red is heavy resistance. The Mass Suit is worn on the body to stabilize the braces and bands giving a connection point. The true and only one size fits all Mass Suit is made with neoprene and web cloth that provides a non sweat absorbing and allowing breathing for the back and core to make sure your body has proper oxygen intake for extreme training. The straps worn on the shoulders of the Mass Suit are adjustable. They have been worn by a 7 foot man to a 5 foot woman. The side straps and waist straps are also adjustable and have been worn by a 350 pound man to a 115 pound woman. The bands that connect from the Mass Suit to the knees and ankles criss cross to provide angles that the body has to work against which provides more strength and balance. The furthest angle provides the most resistance to increase the output of energy and power during your training. It also gives you an unstable balance which then makes you really focus on the tightening of your core and the proper movement of you legs during any type of exercising. The angles of the bands creates an off balance during your training to make you concentrate on rebalancing your upper body, core, hips, groin, legs and feet. In sports you are not always on two feet and are not always balanced and most likely twisting & turning and changing directions. The Mass Suit simulates these actions during training so when it comes to competitions and game time your muscle memory knows how to react and make your body regain its balance to provide the right direction of power and speed to give your actions the best force possible. This also gives you a better chance for you body to even be off balance which will give you the edge over your opponent. Additional Information Increase or Decrease Resistance by Easily Adding or Removing Clips and Bands on Your Own Mobile Resistance Training – Train Anywhere Any Time with Removable Resistance Bands Color Changing Bands of Resistance for a harder workout or if Fatigued by the workout Increase Your Speed, Strength, Stamina, Power in Your Specific Sport Store Policies Free Shipping Qualifications: Items marked for Free Shipping include only the 48 continental United States. Additional shipping charges will apply for items shipped to Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, US Territories, or other countries. Shipping Information Order Processing: Orders received Monday through Friday will be processed within 24 hours. Orders received after 4:00PM Eastern Standard Time (EST) on Friday will be processed on the following Monday. Delivery Information: When available, choose from standard, express or super express delivery for your order. Some items are not eligible for 1-Day, 2-Day, Next Day Air, 2nd Day Air, or 3rd Day. Some items will require a signature at the time of delivery. Select delivery and some specialty items may require additional delivery time. Typical delivery estimates: Super Express delivery: 2 business days | Express delivery: 4 business days | Standard delivery: 10 business days Please Note: Express delivery methods may not be offered if the item is shipped directly from the manufacturer, or if product regulations prevent air shipment. The cost of Express delivery methods includes standard shipping charges plus the cost of expediting the shipping process to ensure timely shipping. Remember that mail carriers do not deliver on Sundays or major holidays, and that packages shipping from our manufacturers may take a few extra days to arrive. UPS does not deliver on Saturdays. Return shipping costs for items shipped directly from the manufacturer may vary. International Buyers Please Note: Import duties, taxes, and charges are not included in the item price or shipping cost. These charges are the buyer's responsibility. Please check with your country's customs office to determine what these additional costs will be prior to bidding or buying. International customers may incur additional shipping and handling charges for warranty repairs, returns, or exchanges. Payment Information Payment:We accept the following forms of payment: Sales TaxFor shipments to addresses in the State of Georgia, we are required by State law to collect 8% Sales Tax. IMPORTANT The sale of this item may be subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and state and local regulatory agencies. If the item is subject to FDA regulation, we will verify your status as an authorized purchaser of this item before shipping. If product requires power from an electrical outlet, the standard voltage rating is 120 Volts, unless otherwise stated. The use of this product with anything over 120 Volts, or in conjunction with a voltage converter, may cause serious damage and void warranty.
$
24.99
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: LLLRII
Brand: Lifeline USA
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Resistance Cables Lifeline USA Lateral Resistor II With Three 60 lb. Resistance Cables Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview Learn to resist all types of lateral movements with the ultimate lateral speed and agility trainer. Develop explosive lower body strength and power with the Lifeline USA Lateral Resistor II. Benefits:Now you can build complete lower body strength and achieve explosive movesIncrease agility and speed for a superior athletic performanceBuild power and muscle endurancePerfect for resisting defensive slides, quick feet drills, monster walks and all hip movementsTarget and strengthen thighs, glutes, hamstrings and calves with lunges, extensions and curlsProvides equal resistance in all directions, allowing for freedom of movementImprove your balance by targeting those under-used muscle groupsOther Great Features:The Lateral Resistor II is lightweight and portable, perfect for the gym, home or travelEquipped with durable webbing on the exteriorThe secure ankle straps are one size fits mostFeatures an innovative patented cable pocket designCan be adjusted for different levels of resistanceComes with three 60-lb resistance cablesYou can purchase additional Lifeline cables of varying resistance levels to increase your endurance and achieve variety in your workoutsThe box includes: one Lateral Resistor II, one pair of padded ankle cuffs with cable pockets, three 60-pound resistance cables, and an instructional brochure Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
1915.00
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Birmingham,AL,USA
Brand: WaterRower
WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower with S4 Monitor The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower is unsurpassed in terms of design refinement.WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has a patented WaterFlywheel design emulates rowing like no machine before it.Smooth, silent and storing conveniently upright the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower is perfect for any user and in any environment.The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has an unique patented WaterFlywheel has been designed to emulate the dynamics of a boat moving through water.When you ... moredecide to improve your health, your first step doesn't have to be pounding the pavement on a grueling, long-distance run.If you join a gym, regular rowing workouts are an ideal way to work toward maximum physical fitness.Using the WaterRower M1 HiRise rowing machine can help to build and tone your muscles, strengthen your cardiovascular function and increase your stamina. Rowing machines are particularly effective for older fitness enthusiasts because they place no strain on your back and joints.With the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower all the muscles, from the tips of the fingers holding the handle/oars, to the balls of the feet connected to the footboard/boat,all the muscles between these two points contribute to the rowing stroke.By maximizing the muscle mass contributing to the exercise in this way, the WaterRower M1 HiRise is unrivalled in benefit derived per unit of time.Other common aerobic exercise equipment like treadmills, cycles, ellipticals and even other rowing machines,use far less muscle mass, burn fewer calories and generating less exercise benefit.Using the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower the joints moves through a full range of motion, from legs totally extended to totallycontracted and arms totally contracted to totally extended.Moving the joints through a full range of motion aids joint lubrication, joint mobility and overall Joint Health.Medical Professionals and Physical Therapists alike trust the benefits of the WaterRower and Rowing as an excellent cardio exercise.Burning up to 1000 calories per hour and working out up to 84% of your muscle mass during one exercise,rowing offers a tremendously beneficial exercise without the perceived fatigue and exhaustion often apparent when using other cardio training gym equipment.Using the WaterRower M1 rowing machine is an endurance exercise that increases heart function anduses carbohydrates to provide the energy required to exercise.Keeping the M1 tension at a low level allows you to maintain a high rate of speed with little resistance in order to reach and maintain an aerobic state.Aerobic exercise improves lung, heart and circulation systems and is the cornerstone of an effective exercise routine, according to MayoClinic.com.When rowing the workout is generated by overcoming the effect of drag as the boat moves through the water.So with the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WaterFlywheel the workout is generated by overcoming the effect of drag as the water moves past the tank.When rowing faster you move the boat, the greater the drag and the greater the intensity of exerciserequired to maintain your speed on the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower.The limit to the speed you can maintain is you, your physiology. Not the machine.The WaterRower M1 HiRise provides a full range of motion for the upper body, and it recruits an almost incredible 84% of muscle mass!Still, the machine is low impact on your joints. Compared with many other aerobic fitness machines it puts little pressure on your ankles, knees and hips.The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rowing Machine can support more than 2,000 pounds.WaterRower M1-HiRise S4 Monitors have LCD screens and can connect with a personal computer.TheM1 HiRise have preset workout programs and give a good deal of feedback about each session and/or interval.Display fields include m/s (meters per second), mph (mile per hour), /500m (time per 500 meters), /2km (time per 2 kilometers),watts and Kcalories/hour.The M1 HiRise S4 can also show advanced heart rate data, although the heart rate monitoring equipment is sold separately.Because the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has a precision sprag clutch engages the instant the handle is pulled there is nojerkiness or jarring at the beginning of the stroke.The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has a frame that is Fabricated Tubular Steel much ofthe mechanical vibration typical of other exercise machinery is dampened.Add up all the benefits of the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower and it'sno wonder more and more people are stepping off the stationary bike and strapping into a rower.People are catching on that they could be getting so much more out of their workout in the same amount of time. Call 1-800-875-9145 to talk with one of our agents at FitnessZone with any questions you may have about the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower.Order your WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower from FitnessZone.com today to enhance the quality and enjoyment of your workouts. The WaterRower M1 HiRise is a full commercial model with a higher level entry point than the the M1 LoRise.The frame is constructed from a fabricated tubular steel. The WaterRower M1 HiRise gets a review total score of a 10.The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has been designed to optimize ease of storage.Simply lift one end and the machine stores conveniently upright in about the space of a dining room chair.The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has a light wooden frame, the positioning of the WaterFlywheel closeto the wheels, and the leverage effect provided by the rails, makes lifting almost effortless.When stored the WaterRower's patented WaterFlywheel provides a low center of gravity making the machine very stable.Designed with an obsession for detail, the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower is unmatched by any other fitness equipment.The overriding design philosophy of the WaterRower has achieved "beauty by simplicity".Every detail has been resolved to compliment the overall appearance and performance of the machine.Order your WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower from FitnessZone.com today!The M1 HiRise Rower is built from thick aluminum tubing and using water for resistance, the HiRise is built to last.The components are covered for three years if the product is registered. WaterRowers are made to endure far longer than their warranties might suggest. WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower Unique WaterFlywheelThe WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower unique WaterFlywheel design uses an specially formed paddle to cup the moving water, reduce slippage and produce an unrivalled simulation of the benefits of rowing;Self Regulating Resistance - like rowing, the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WaterFlywheel resistance varies proportional to the users intensity. The relationship between resistance and speed responds according “the rule of cubes”. The rule of cubes dictates that a doubling of speed requires an eight fold increase in power.Rule of CubesSelf Paced - like rowing, the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WaterFlywheel does not apply resistance to you, you apply work to it; you are the engine. By the “rule of cubes”, the amount of work you apply dictates the speed at which you row. From a gentle paddle to a “give it your all” workout, you are in control.Even Stroke - like rowing, the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WaterFlywheel uses a relatively slow-moving heavy mass to generate a smooth uniform load throughout the stroke. Air resistance machines, by comparison, tend to be jerky, jarring, and uneven, fading as the resistance is overcome.Fluid Connection - like rowing, the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WaterFlywheel creates a fluid connection between rower and water using a simple immersed paddle. There is no solid mechanical connection, instead the contact between the paddle face and the water acts to dampen out any mechanical feel.Because the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has a patented Water Flywheel it uses the same physical dynamics as rowing, its operation is equally as peaceful. Simply pull the handle and you are greeted with the sound of surging water. The noise, while not silent, is soothing to the ears and is far from intrusive on the WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower.WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower S4 Console WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower Console FeaturesQuickStart Feature- simply press the On button and the monitor is ready for use, away you row QuickSelect Feature- most common applications are accessible by pressing just one button and using the navigation button accordingly AutoStore Feature- automatically stores the last 9 historic workout settings for easy recallAutoPreview Function- when stored programs are previewed in their memory location, or when they are loaded ready for a work out, the settings are scrolled through for viewingZone Feature- set your desired intensity, strokerate or heartrate zone and you are alerted when you are above or below the zone ZoneBar Feature- when you are inside your zone the zone bar tells you where you are within your zone Distance Workout Feature- set a desired distance and work down to zero, average workout statistics will show upon completion along with the total time Duration Workout Feature- set a desired duration and work down to zero, average workout statistics will show upon completion along with the total distance Interval Workout Feature- set a up to 9 work intervals (of distance or duration) separated by rest durations. Receive alarms and statistics at the interval end PC Interface- link the S4 Monitor to your PC and have access to a wide variety of 3rd party and open source software WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower S4 Console Fits Your Life WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower Styled to Compliment you EnvironmentThere is a WaterRower model to compliment any environment, Home, Office or Gym. Soothingly Silent The WaterRower’s silent operation means it may be used anywhere, at any time without imposition on those around you. Functional Fitness Furniture - Fitness is not a workout, it is a series of workouts spread conveniently throughout the weeks, months and years.Stores with Ease - Good looks and a compact frame the WaterRower Natural Ash Rower stores conveniently on end simply and easily when not in use.Silent and Unintrusive - The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower has been designed to be silent, with all but the soothing sound of moving water. WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower S4 Console is Fitness For FamilyWaterRower M1 HiRise Rower Suitable for any UserPerfect Exercise - Rowing has long been recognized as the perfect aerobic pursuit; working 84% of your muscle mass, Spreading the work evenly over all major muscle groups, the WaterRower is unrivalled in its replication of the real thing.Self-Regulating Resistance - WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower patented WaterFlywheel’s varies resistance proportional to the users intensity of exercise, according to the Rule of Cubes, allowing any user of any age and fitness level to use the machine with no adjustmentSuitable for ANY User - The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower suites the requirement of any user, young or old, fit or unfit, male or female, even a short workout will burn calories, tone your body, and leave you feeling enriched.Row Anytime - The WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower is silent but for the soothing sound of flowing water making it available to use at any time and in almost any place WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower S4 Console Optional AccessoriesHR Receiver - $50HR Chest Belt - $50 WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower S4 Console FeaturesFabricated tubular steel frame with brushed finish - great for commercial or home useWater tank ensures smooth-gliding motion and is easy to maintainEasy-to-use training monitor tracks stroke rate, intensity, distance, and timeQuick assemble using only a 5mm Allen Key wrench (included)Smooth-gliding seat wheels mounted on durable rails for stable, easy movementHandlebars, seat, and footrest are comfortable and durableWorks 84 percent of muscle mass for maximum resultsCombines aerobic workout and resistance for total body reshapingWaterRower M1 HiRise Rower SpecificationsIn Use: Length - 88” / 224 cm, Width - 22.25” / 57 cm, Height - 27.625” / 71 cmStored: Depth - 27.625” / 71 cm, Width - 22.25” / 57 cm, Height - 88” / 224 cmWeight: 120 lbs / 54.5 kg (dry), 157 lb / 71.5 kg (17 l of water)Fabricated Tubular Steel WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower WarrantyFrame: 5 YearsParts: 3 Years“ WaterRower will not provide support or documentation for any product transported outside of the original country of purchase”.Order your WaterRower M1 HiRise Rower with S4 Monitor from FitnessZone.com today!
$
13.75
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Choose Your Category Fitness Outdoors Running Team Sports Apparel Boxing & MMA Shop by Brand Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Light (Blue) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Blue Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
13.30
3d 12h 43m 53s
0 bids
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Henryville,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Heavy (Black) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Black Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
84.00
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: LONGBAR
Brand: Stroops
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Stroops Fit Stik 53" Long Bar Stroops Fit Stik 53" Long Bar Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview There is beauty in simplicity, and there is power in beauty. Introducing our powerful, simple Stroops Fit Stik Long Bar, your ultimate tool for building core strength, explosive power, flexibility, and endurance. Made in America of steel, our lightweight, portable, scientifically engineered Fit Stik Short Bar consists of a 53-inch long handle with professional grade grips with swivel eyelets that attach to our patented Slastix (one or both sides at a time), which are then anchored to a stationary object or your own feet. Deceptively simple in design, Fit Stik creates resistance while you engage in exercises and movements that mimic real-world sports. Constructed of aluminum with brushed finishRubber grips1” diameter, 53” long bar plus eyelet lengthEyelet with bearings on each end of bar for attachment of Slastix (sold separately) Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
10.99
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Lorain,OH,USA
MPN: 4020 Large 56 Chute
Brand: RAD Sportz
Brand New!! About Us Payment Shipping Returns Store Contact Us RAD Sportz 56 Inch Speed Training Resistance Parachute Quality Running Chute Free Standard Shipping! 2 Day Shipping: $15.00Next Day Air: $30.00 Product Details: RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world-- these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA, and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines ... moreresistance and overspeed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina, and endurance. After training with the chute, your speed, explosiveness, and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING FOR!!! What is Included: RAD Sportz 56" Running ChuteFREE Carrying Case Features:56" diameter25 lbs of resistanceFully functional unit includes parachute and belt with hook and loop fasteners closure.hook and loop fasteners Quick Release for overspeed trainingAdjustable- waist sizes 20-42 inchesQuick Release Strap provides easy release into overspeedTop Quality Materials: Light but strongMesh panels eliminate the tangling of strings found on other chute modelsThe panels provide stability to reduce shiftingIncrease Training Excitement and motivation because you can feel yourself improving and running fasterVersatility- Can be used with sports skills building drills (football etc.) or drills involving change of direction and speedEasily folds down to fit in the free carry case that will fit in any backpack COMES WITH A FREE RAD SPORTZ CARRYING BAG! Shipping We can only ship to the 48 states We are unable to change an address after a package leaves. Our warehouse ships on the weekends, but our offices are closed. If you order today, your order will leave the following business day Contact Us Through Ebay Messages Only Office Hours Monday - Friday: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm EASTERN. Warehouse Hours of Operation Monday - Sunday: 6:00 am - 4:00 pm EASTERN. 30-Day Limited Warranty If you have changed your mind, you may return this to us for any reason. If your item is damaged, or different than expected, please contact us through ebay messages We will be happy to assist with any question you have *Sales Tax For shipments to Ohio addresses, we are required by State law to collect 6.75% Sales Tax. For shipments to KY addresses, we are required by State law to collect 6% Sales Tax For shipments to NV addresses, we are required by State law to collect 8.265% Sales Tax About Us Payment Shipping Returns Store Contact Us
$
26.99
Buy It Now
$3.99 Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Port Washington,NY,USA
Brand: Rubymont
Features:1. The design of the kinesiology full leg sleeves adds pressure on your leg muscles thereby improving exercise efficiency.2. It also stabilizes core muscle groups of your lower limbs resulting in enhanced power output and improvement of exercise endurance.3. When you do strenuous exercise you produce lactic acid, the sleeves help to reduce the accumulation of the acid and reduces soreness. Good for sports: Great for people who participate in track and field, cycling, running, brisk walking ... moreand mountain climbing. Good for work: At the workplace it can help people who need to stand for prolonged periods of time or are prone to muscle soreness in their legs. How to choose the right fit: Measure the largest portion of your leg and thigh. If your size overlaps 2 sizes, then choose a model based on your preferred compression feel. For a first time user, we recommend you choose a slightly larger size. Product Size: Small Medium Large Extra Large Extra Extra LargeThigh Size 15”-19” 18”-21” 19”-22” 20”-23” 21”-24” (cm) 38-48 46-54 48-56 50-58 52-60Calf Size 11”-14” 13”-16” 14”-17” 15”-27” 15”-18” (cm) 28-36 34-40 36-42 37-43 39-45 Washing instruction:1. Wash with cold water and air dry. Do not dry clean. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.2. Lifetime of the product depends on frequency of use and method of washing and maintenance. It is recommended you alternatively wear two pairs in order to increase the life of the product. Every 5-6 months or when the tension dissipates a new replacement is recommended. The product has passed strict tests of the medical pressure measurement device MST Professional.NOTE We do our best to reveal merchandise condition for each item listed on eBay store. If you have any question about the item you received, please feel free to contact us first. Customer satisfaction is our mission. Return Policy Item must be returned within:30 DaysRefund will be given as:Money BackReturn policy details:100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! If you are unhappy with the product for any reason, contact us. Send it back in the same condition that you received it including any free gift- with all tags attached in original bags for a FULL REFUND less shipping charges! The returned item(s) must be shipped at your own expense. International shipments are via USPS First-Class Mail® International or USPS Priority Mail International. International delivery time will vary by destination. Insurance included for international package in shipping and handling. We cannot provide insurance on items shipped TO the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua/New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, Yugoslavia, International Customers:· Although the U.S. Government (U.S. Postal Service) claims your USPS package should arrive within 7 to 14 business days from the shipment date, we have been experiencing shipment times more in the range of 1 TO 3 MONTHS (or longer) for other international orders. As we have NO control over customs, PLEASE take this into consideration BEFORE placing your order with us! NOTE ON IMPORT DUTIES: Please be aware that most all countries will add some form of 'Import Duties' for goods & merchandise imported in from a foreign country (i.e., The United States). We have no control over this nor can we advise as to what each individual country may or may not add to the cost of your shipment. However on average we would estimate Import Fees may run as much as 50% of the cost of the product. We advice you to consult your own government's foreign goods policies prior to ordering. In any case any Import Fees incurred are the sole responsibility of the customer. We can not ship "as a gift".
$
64.95
Buy It Now
$10.95 Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Portland,OR,USA
Brand: Zoot
Zoot Compression Tights Pants Size: Women's Extra Small Color: Black Brand New with Tags! CompressRx Scientifically Tested. Athlete Approved. Graduated Compression Technology for the Inspired Athlete. Train. Race. Recover Faster. Performance CompressRx is designed for the athlete who wants the graduated compression experience and prefers the traditional Nylon Spandex garment with +8-20mmHg of support. Experience Performance CompressRx. Improved Circulation by accelerating blood flow back to your ... moreheart Better Muscle Performance by compressing muscles close to your body Less Fatigue by minimizing muscle vibration Faster Recovery by reducing swelling and lactic acid How It Works: Performance CompressRx features the following integrated technologies for training and racing performance. CRx - Graduated compression from the ankle to the waist that helps remove lactic acid and improve blood circulation back to the heart. SeamLink - Proprietary stitch allows the seam to dynamically stretch as much as the fabric it joins to provide a seamless fit. BIOwrap - 240 denier spandex and body specific patterning provide increased muscle support and reduced fatigue. UPF 50+ Sun Protection - Fabric blocks 98% of the UV radiation from the sun. Cut back your recovery time. The Zoot Performance CompressRx Women's Tights cover all of the bases: they contour the body's shape, they provide enough warmth for cool days, and they're soft against the skin. However, they also provide the lauded benefits of compression like an improved circulation and fatigue-lessening muscle support. Combine all of those features, and it's easy to see how the CompressRx Tights will aid in training harder and recovering faster. The CompressRx Women's Tights primarily use Zoot's Endura fabric. This material is features a 80% nylon, 20% spandex blend. Accordingly, the fabric stretches in four directions, ensuring a conforming, second-skin fit that follows your movements. It swiftly transports moisture away from the skin in order to keep you dry during heavy exercise. CompressRX also provides graduated compression, meaning that the compression is highest around the ankle in order to reduce lower compression toward the calf. Think of it as squeezing a tube of toothpaste from the bottom-up. The strategic constriction of veins increases pressure and aids the flow of deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Also, Zoot's Biowrap fabric covers targeted areas of the lower body in order to both provide muscle support and limit the and soreness caused by excessive muscle vibration. Additionally, the tights feature a heavier-weight, 240-denier fabric for added support to your hard-working calves. For precaution's sake, the tights have reflective logos for a heightened visibility to motorists in low-light conditions. Also, Zoot incorporated a flatlock seam construction that limits abrasion and ensures that the fabric stays close to your skin. They also have a zippered center rear pocket to stash some of your fitness essentials. Train smarter. While speed is the quintessential element of victory, there's no Speed Fairy flying around, handing it out for free. As good as that might sound, you simply have to work for it. And when it comes to maximizing your output, while shortening your recovery time, the Zoot Performance CompressRx Tights are the solution for making the most out of your efforts. Now, we know that the term 'compression' is thrown around rather loosely within the industry, but there are a handful of true compression-driven designers out there, with one of the foremost being Zoot. Accordingly, you'll find that the pieces like the Performance CompressRx are actually close to medical grade. In fact, prescription grade compression pressures run from 25mmHg and up, while the Performance features pressures ranging from 10 to 20mmHg. How is this possible from a sports piece? Well, to start, the Performance uses a 20 x 10 compression level that specifically targets the muscle groups used in endurance exercise. So, according to Zoot's graduated compression ideology, each group, or zone, of compression work to stabilize the core areas of exertion within the legs. Effectively, this improves blood flow to the heart by accelerating the circulation. These core principle encompass what Zoot calls its BIOwrap and CRx graduated designs. Of course, maximizing circulation is vital to both long, top-output exertions and recovery. But, we've found that most compression pieces are lacking is the field of muscle support. Over a run or ride, your muscles are constantly under assault from the detrimental effects of road or impact vibration. Over time, this variable will cause major muscle fatigue. So, to minimize this effect, the Performance features Zoot's proprioception paneling. That's a big word, we know, so let's break it down. Basically, this means that the paneling is designed to account for the sensations that are enacted from within the body itself. Everyone has what are called 'proprioceptors.' These are cells and nerves that emit stimuli to account for your body's position in movement. Or, in more basic terms, think of balance. Your unconscious sensory correction of staying upright is attributable to these cells. And when your body is performing repetitive, practiced movements, their impact on the required muscle groups also become predictable. So, Zoot's design uses specific paneling to account for your body's internal movements. Even more impressively, over time, this localized support will train your muscle's non-visual sensory movements, and accordingly, it will enhance your body's proprioception. You might have noticed that while this design supports the muscles, it still creates a graduated compression system. We've already mentioned the importance of rapid circulation, but where most compression pieces go astray, is that the same pressures of compression are used throughout. So, the Performance instead opts for a graduated, or gradient, design. Think of a value scale of shading -- darkest to lightest. Basically, graduated compression works the same way. With the Performance, you'll find that the highest pressures fall at the bottom of the tights, and then get gradually less constrictive towards the top. Essentially, this puts pressure on the muscles, arteries, and veins that are farthest away from the heart, ultimately forcing the body to circulate blood through narrower circulatory channels. So, almost like kinking a hose, it creates arterial pressure, and like when you finally release the kink, blood circulates faster to the heart. Ultimately, these processes equate to comfort, which is only further accentuated by the tights' soft-to-touch nylon face and SeamLink stitch construction. So, you can expect a next-to-skin fit that aids in the pinnacle of compression assistance. Features: Made of 80% Nylon and 20% Lyrca ElastaneAnatomical FitFlatlock seam construction that limits abrasion and ensures that the fabric stays close to your skinZippered rear pocket for stashing essentials while you train, run, or work outReflective logos for added visibility in low light conditions Ideal for exercising, training, running, racing, and/or recovery Great Gift Idea! Tights are Brand New with Tags in the Box! Looking for other high quality sports and outdoors clothing, footwear, and gear? (CLICK HERE) I specialize in high quality outdoor clothes / gear / equipment (snow ski, snowboard, rock / mountain climbing, camping, hiking, bike / cycling, skate boarding, water sport's), sporting goods, mens and womens clothing, footwear (boots, shoes), accessories (sunglasses, hats, wallets), bags (laptop/messenger, luggage, travel packs, backpacks), and media (DVD / Blu-ray videos, CDs, video games) ~ I will combine shipping if you win multiple items ~ Most expensive shipping item = Full ShippingEach additional item = FREE SHIPPING!100% Positive Feedback - Bid with Confidence! Payment can be made either via PayPal or any major credit card. Shipping is $10.95 via USPS Priority Mail - tracking and delivery confirmation is included. I have made every effort to accurately describe this item; if you have any questions, please contact me prior to bidding. I am more than happy to provide a further explanation of an item's condition, features, etc. or send additional pictures via email. No returns or refunds unless I have made an error in the listing. Thank you for bidding and enjoy!keyword alternate spellings/common misspellings: zot zut zute compresion rx performence performanse performans women womens women's woman womans woman's lady ladys lady's ladie ladies ladie's sized xtra smal x.s. run runing cross train training trane traning traneing work out workout working exercise exersise fitness fitnes athletic tight tights tight's
$
13.30
3d 12h 47m 18s
0 bids
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Henryville,PA,USA
MPN: GMPHE
Brand: Gripmaster
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals 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SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser - Extra Heavy (Gray) Gripmaster Pro Hand Exerciser Color: Gray Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The Gripmaster Pro isolates and strengthens each finger individually, helping you improve your overall strength, endurance, and dexterity. A few daily workouts with the Gripmaster Pro and you'll enjoy better control of a baseball/softball bat, tennis racquet, or golf club, with each finger working in seamless unity with the others. High-quality hand exerciser with spring-loaded finger piston technologyIsolates and strengthens each finger individually for better overall coordinationImproves user control of bats, racquets, clubs, guitars, and other sports equipmentFits conveniently in your pocket; lets you strengthen your fingers anytime, anywhereYou'll also find a ton of other uses for the Gripmaster Pro, including playing guitar or violin, rock climbing, bowling, target shooting, martial arts, yoga, or even relieving stress while clicking a mouse or gaming for hours on endTo keep things interesting and to accommodate certain uses, the company recommends several different exercises, including the "fingertip pinch," "flatfist," "powergrip," "wristflex," and "thumbpinch," most of which are explained on the Gripmaster website Tension (lbs per finger): Light (Blue) - 5 lbs Medium (Red) - 7 lbs Heavy (Black) - 9 lbs Extra Heavy (Gray) - 11 lbs Extra Extra Heavy (Orange) - 13 lbs Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
61.99
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Greenfield,IN,USA
MPN: SWGT-706
Brand: Crown Sporting Goods
Build Lower Body Strength and Prevent Injury! Select Weight Above! Ankle weights do wonders for your lower body, from adding intensity to cardio to building strength and toning important leg muscles during training. Take our weights and add them to leg lifts, curls, presses, lunges, and calf raises to push your workout to higher levels. Add them to your training regimen to prevent troublesome lower body injuries. Each black ankle weight comes in a pair and are made with soft, moisture-wicking fabric ... moreto provide comfort and to lightly absorb sweat. They can be loosened or tightened to your desired fit with adjustable hook and loop fastener straps and ring closures. These ankle weights rest on the outside of the legs to prevent rubbing and bumping for a more comfortable walk, jog, or run as well as during leg exercises. Choose a Size: Find the right pair for your needs, we offer pairs of 1.1lbs, 2.2lbs, 3lbs, 4lbs, or 5lbs. Lower weights add light resistance, medium weights build endurance and tone muscles, and heavy weights build muscle strength. Why You'll Love It: Our ankle weights come with a convenient storage pouch, so you can take your weights with you wherever you train. There are endless uses for ankle weights, from cardio and strength training to rehabilitative programs. Ankle weights are used by athletes of all sports including Track & Field, Cross Country, and Gymnastics as well as core sports like Basketball, Football, Soccer, and Baseball.
$
14.99
Buy It Now
$3.99 Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Port Washington,NY,USA
Brand: Rubymont
Features:1. The design of the kinesiology calf sleeves adds pressure on your leg muscles thereby improving exercise efficiency.2. It also stabilizes core muscle groups of your lower limbs resulting in enhanced power output and improvement of exercise endurance.3. When you do strenuous exercise you produce lactic acid, the sleeves help to reduce the accumulation of the acid and reduces soreness. Good for sports: Great for people who participate in track and field, cycling, running, brisk walking ... moreand mountain climbing. Good for work: At the workplace it can help people who need to stand for prolonged periods of time or are prone to muscle soreness in their calfs. How to choose the right fit: Measure the largest portion of your leg and thigh. If your size overlaps 2 sizes, then choose a model based on your preferred compression feel. For a first time user, we recommend you choose a slightly larger size. Product Size: Small Medium Large Extra LargeCalf Size 11”-15” 13”-16” 14”-17” 15”-18” (cm) 28-37 33-39 37-43 39-45 Washing instruction:1. Wash with cold water and air dry. Do not dry clean. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.2. Lifetime of the product depends on frequency of use and method of washing and maintenance. It is recommended you alternatively wear two pairs in order to increase the life of the product. Every 5-6 months or when the tension dissipates a new replacement is recommended. The product has passed strict tests of the medical pressure measurement device MST Professional. NOTE We do our best to reveal merchandise condition for each item listed on eBay store. If you have any question about the item you received, please feel free to contact us first. Customer satisfaction is our mission. Return Policy Item must be returned within: 30 Days Refund will be given as: Money Back Return policy details: 100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! If you are unhappy with the product for any reason, contact us. Send it back in the same condition that you received it including any free gift- with all tags attached in original bags for a FULL REFUND less shipping charges! The returned item(s) must be shipped at your own expense. International shipments are via USPS First-Class Mail® International or USPS Priority Mail International. International delivery time will vary by destination. Insurance included for international package in shipping and handling. We cannot provide insurance on items shipped TO the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua/New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, Yugoslavia, International Customers: · Although the U.S. Government (U.S. Postal Service) claims your USPS package should arrive within 7 to 14 business days from the shipment date, we have been experiencing shipment times more in the range of 1 TO 3 MONTHS (or longer) for other international orders. As we have NO control over customs, PLEASE take this into consideration BEFORE placing your order with us!  NOTE ON IMPORT DUTIES: Please be aware that most all countries will add some form of 'Import Duties' for goods & merchandise imported in from a foreign country (i.e., The United States). We have no control over this nor can we advise as to what each individual country may or may not add to the cost of your shipment. However on average we would estimate Import Fees may run as much as 50% of the cost of the product. We advise you to consult your own government's foreign goods policies prior to ordering. In any case any Import Fees incurred are the sole responsibility of the customer. We cannot ship "as a gift".
$
22.50
Buy It Now
Free Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: BLBOOK
Brand: Buddy Lee
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals & Flip Flops Men's Socks Women's Athletic Shoes Women's Sandals & Flip Flops Women's Socks Boys' Shoes Girls' Shoes Shoelaces Shoe Insoles Shoe Care Boxing & MMA Boxing Gloves MMA Gloves Handwraps & Glove Wraps Headgear Shin Guards Elbow, Knee & Ankle Guards Groin Protectors Punch Mitts, Thai Pads & Shields Punching Bags MMA & Boxing Shorts Uniforms & Gis Shirts Hoodies & Sweatshirts Footwear Instructional DVDs & Books Accessories Travel Accessories Phone Accessories Sunglasses Bags & Backpacks Supplement Mixing Bottles Canteens Water Bottles Shop by Brand Shop CategoriesBoxing & MMAGlovesBoxing Heavy Bag GlovesBoxing Training GlovesBoxing Competition GlovesMMA Bag GlovesMMA Training GlovesMMA Competition GlovesProtective GearHeadgearHandwraps & Glove WrapsShin GuardsCompression, Supporters, CupsNo-Foul & Groin ProtectorsMouthguardsElbow, Knee & Ankle GuardsApparelMMA ShortsRashguardsMartial Arts GisBoxing TrunksBoxing ShoesShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesCaps & HeadwearVale Tudo ShortsCoach & TrainerPunch MittsThai PadsPunch & Kick ShieldsBody ProtectorsCorner SuppliesPunching BagsSpeed BagsDouble End BagsSpecialty BagsHeavy BagsFreestanding BagsBag AccessoriesUniforms & BeltsJiu JitsuJudoKarateTaekwondoKarate & TaekwondoHeadgearArm & HandFoot & ShinChest & GroinTargets & ShieldsUniforms & BeltsWeaponsAccessoriesAccessoriesTimersGear BagsGym BannersInstructional Videos & BooksRunningMen's ClothingShirtsShortsPantsJacketsTightsWomen's ClothingTopsShortsPantsMen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's ShoesRunningTrack & FieldTrail RunningCross-TrainingRunning AccessoriesBottles & Hydration PacksSafety & Reflective GearHeart Rate Monitors & GPSPedometersCaps & HeadwearBags, Holders & PouchesTeam SportsWrestlingProtective GearApparelSwimmingGogglesSwimwearSwim Fins & PaddlesKickboards & BuoysNose Clips & Ear PlugsElectronicsSnorkelsResistance TrainingAccessoriesBasketballBasketballsTraining AidsHoops, Nets & AccessoriesBaseball & SoftballGloves & MittsBatsBatting GlovesTraining AidsProtective GearBallsAccessoriesHockeySkatesHockey SticksProtective GearApparelPucks, Balls & AccessoriesRacquet SportsApparel & FootwearAccessoriesVolleyballVolleyballsProtective Gear & PadsTraining Aids & ApparelSoccerBallsShin GuardsClothingTraining EquipmentFootballFootballsProtective GearApparel & AccessoriesReceiving GlovesOutdoorsCyclingSeat PacksHydrationCycling GlovesCycling ElectronicsCamping & HikingHydrationSafety & Survival EquipmentSleepingBackpacks & BagsRock ClimbingCarabinersRopes, Cords & WebbingHarnessesGolfClubsApparelGlovesBags & CartsAccessoriesBallsTraining AidsPaintballMarkersBarrelsProtectiveLoaders, Hoppers & PodsMarker Upgrades & PartsAir Systems & TanksGun PackagesHarnesses & BeltsFishingRodsReelsBaits & ScentsFishing LineLures & FliesTerminal TackleAccessoriesHunting & TacticalOpticsGun AccessoriesFitnessStrength TrainingLifting GlovesLifting Straps & WrapsLifting BeltsResistance TrainingGrip ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Buddy Lee Jump Rope Training Book 2nd Edition Buddy Lee Jump Rope Training Book 2nd Edition Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview The world's best-selling jump rope training guide returns, and it's bigger, better, and more complete than ever! In Jump Rope Training, Second Edition, former U.S. wrestling champion Buddy Lee presents his jump rope training system used by over 25 U.S. Olympic teams.Workouts for a variety of sport skill and fitness components are included, such as endurance, strength and power, speed, agility, and balance. This second edition also includes the latest on rehabilitation of sport injuries and optimizing body composition for athletic performance. And, to get you started immediately, Jump Rope Training presents sample sport-specific training programs for more than 40 sports.If you're ready to take your workouts to the next level, turn to the system that the world's top athletes have come to rely on. Jump Rope Training will not only change the way you train but also change how you feel, look, and perform. It's the proven approach to improving fitness and performance. Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
89.00
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Condition: New
Location: Pen Argyl,PA,USA
MPN: FATBAR
Brand: Stroops
Powered by Frooition.com Home About us Newsletter Sign Up Contact us Fitness Lifting Gloves, Straps & Wraps Lifting Belts Resistance Training High Altitude Training Fitness Technology Hydration Yoga & Pilates Hand Grippers Abdominal Exercisers Sports Medicine Massage Tools Dietary Supplements, Nutrition Men's Athletic Clothing Women's Athletic Clothing Outdoors Camping & Hiking Survival & Safety Gear Cycling Golf Water Sports Fishing Hunting & Tactical Paintball Climbing Running Hydration Running ... moreBelts Safety & Reflective Gear GPS & Running Watches Pedometers Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Men's Socks Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Women's Socks Hats & Headwear Sweatbands Running Gloves Team Sports Baseball & Softball Basketball Football Hockey Soccer Wrestling Swimming Volleyball Tennis & Racquet Sports Apparel Men's Clothing Men's Shoes Women's Clothing Women's Shoes Kid's Clothing & Shoes Caps & Headwear Accessories Footwear Men's Athletic Shoes Men's Casual Shoes Men's Sandals 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ImprovementWeighted Exercise EquipmentCable AttachmentsPull Up & Push Up BarsMedicine BallsYoga & PilatesYoga TowelsMatsMat BagsStrapsClothingBlocksKitsHealth & WellnessSweat & Sauna SuitsMassage ToolsBelts & TonersSkin ProtectionSupplementsCleaners & SanitizersPain ReliefSports MedicineKneeAnkleLegWristElbowShoulderBackThigh & GroinArmCompression GearShortsTightsLong SleeveSocks & LeggingsGuards & SleevesSupporters & CupsProtective CupsFitness AccessoriesJump RopesAbs & Core TrainingFoam RollersWorkout TowelsHigh Altitude TrainingBalance & FlexibilityMatsFitness BallsAir Pumps & NeedlesPerformance TrainingResistance TrainingApparelMen's ApparelShirtsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsShortsJackets & VestsUnderwear & Boxer JocksSwimsuitsWomen's ApparelShirts & TopsSweatshirts & HoodiesPantsSports BrasJackets & VestsShortsKid's ApparelShirts & TopsShortsPantsSweatshirts & HoodiesJackets & OuterwearAccessoriesCaps & HeadwearHeadbands & WristbandsSocksGlovesNeck GaitersBeltsFootwearMen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlideHikingTrail RunningCross-TrainingWomen's FootwearRunningSandals & SlidesTrail RunningCross-TrainingAccessoriesShoelacesInsolesSocksAccessoriesBackpacks & DuffelsInstructional DVDs & BooksWater Bottles & HydrationMouthguardsStraplessStrappedConvertibleAccessoriesFitness TechnologyHeart Rate MonitorsPedometersStopwatchesInterval & Circuit TimersAccessoriesMP3 PlayersNovelties Stroops Fit Stik Pro Series "Fat" Bar Stroops Fit Stik Pro Series "Fat" Bar Overview Overview Shipping Return Policy Overview There is beauty in simplicity, and there is power in beauty. Introducing our powerful, simple Stroops Fit Stik Pro: your ultimate tool for building core strength, explosive power, flexibility, and endurance Made in America of steel, our lightweight, portable, scientifically engineered Fit Stik Pro consists of a 43-inch long handle with professional grade grips with swivel eyelets that attach to our patented Slastix (one or both sides at a time), which are then anchored to a stationary object or your own feetDeceptively simple in design, Fit Stik creates resistance while you engage in exercises and movements that mimic real-world sports Fit Stik Pro—simple, powerful, beautifulIncludes one Fit Stik Pro, 1.5" in diameterStroops Slastix sold separatelyNote: Color may vary depending on availability Shipping Shipping Orders are processed within 1 business day, Monday through Friday. We only ship to the confirmed delivery address provided by PayPal. Before you pay, please make sure your address in PayPal matches the address you would like us to ship to. Attention International Buyers: DHL GlobalMail can take 2 to 6 weeks. USPS Priority Mail International can take 1 to 4 weeks (tracking is provided for all but flat rate parcels). You can view the progress of your DHL GlobalMail shipment while it is in the United States by visiting the link below. This site will track the package until it leaves the United States and then no further updates will be available. To view progress for Standard International Shipping (DHL GlobalMail) packages: Click Here Return Policy Return Policy We are able to accept returns on items in the original, brand-new condition (with tags attached) for up to 60 days from the date of delivery. Customers are responsible for the return shipping cost. Any products returned in damaged condition or with missing parts will not be eligible for a refund. Please contact us directly for return instructions. Please Note: For sanitary reasons along with some state regulations, we are not able to accept returns on restricted items. Restricted items include but are not limited to undergarments and bathing suits. As a buyer from our store, you can take comfort in knowing we do not resell any restricted items. More Items!View more great items Home About Us Closeouts Contact us View All Brands Powered by Frooition Frooition | No-js Template | eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design (ver:froo_no_js) This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused.
$
82.05
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Condition: New
Location: USA
NEEVA Speed Agility Training Kit soccer equipment Speed Set With Carry BagProduct descriptionWhat's Included:(1) Agility Ladder(10) Flexible Cones(4) Metal Pegs(4) Resistance Bands(1) Jump Rope(1) Resistance Parachute & Harness(1) Carrying Bag(1) eBook Training GuidesTrain Harder than CompetitionThe agility ladder and cones help you train for endurance and speed. The resistance bands and parachute build strength and stamina. The jump rope is a great way to build conditioning and is a perfect warmup ... moreand cooldown for your workouts. Athlete's worldwide are training to get faster and stronger and our bundle will give you that edge in training that competitors lack.In Depth Workout Guides Included to Get you StartedOur workout guides were developed by former athlete's and speed development coaches to help ensure that you are on the right path to meeting your training goals.Train AnywhereFor so long, the gym was the go to place for a well-rounded workout. The reason being that gyms have space and equipment.Especially after the New Year, the gym becomes overcrowded. You have to wait for equipment, and as you wait your heart-rate goes down making the workout even more inefficient. What if there was a more convenient option?There is. The NEEVA kit is like your mini gym. You can take it anywhere, outdoors, indoors and train like a pro wherever you are. With 5 different types of equipment that target different skills, it’s suitable for anyone, at any point in your fitness journey.THE LEADING AGILITY TRAINING SET - The NEEVA set is the only set that includes a 19.5 foot Agility Ladder (comes with 4 metal pegs), 10 Disc Cones, 5 Resistance Bands, a Jump Rope, a Resistance Parachute, Carrying Bag, and Loaded eBook. Perfectly crafted by leading industry professionals.GET FASTER AND STRONGER with HIIT Training- Run faster, jump higher and dig harder with resistance training that builds strength, speed, agility and balance. Improve your athletic performance in the most efficient way used by athletes, coaches, and trainers worldwide. SUPERIOR QUALITY - Our professional-grade agility ladder has thick durable rungs, heavy duty straps and comes perfectly adjusted straight out of the box. The cones, rope, and parachute are strong and built to last, season after season.PERFECT FOR ALL- This set is perfect for coaches and athletes training for all sports including football drills, soccer practice, basketball, lacrosse, hockey, baseball, tennis, track and field. It also works great for individual training. Master your movement with quickness and power!1 Year Warranty & 100% MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE - So confident in our superior quality that we guarantee you will be satisfied. If you’re unhappy with your Speed Agility Kit, we will refund you, no questions asked.
$
10.99
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Condition: New with tags
Location: Lorain,OH,USA
MPN: 4015 Medium 48 Chute
Brand: RAD Sportz
Brand New!! About Us Payment Shipping Returns Store Contact Us RAD Sportz 48 Inch Speed Training Resistance Parachute Quality Running Chute Free Standard Shipping! 2 Day Shipping: $15.00 Next Day Air: $30.00 Product Details: RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world-- these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA, and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines ... moreresistance and overspeed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina, and endurance. After training with the chute, your speed, explosiveness, and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING FOR!!! What is Included: RAD Sportz 48" Running Chute FREE Carrying Case Features: 48" diameter 20 lbs of resistance Fully functional unit includes parachute and belt with hook and loop fasteners closure. hook and loop fasteners Quick Release for overspeed training Adjustable- waist sizes 20-42 inches Quick Release Strap provides easy release into overspeed Top Quality Materials: Light but strong Mesh panels eliminate the tangling of strings found on other chute models The panels provide stability to reduce shifting Increase Training Excitement and motivation because you can feel yourself improving and running faster Versatility- Can be used with sports skills building drills (football etc.) or drills involving change of direction and speed Easily folds down to fit in the free carry case that will fit in any backpack COMES WITH A FREE RAD SPORTZ CARRYING BAG! Shipping We can only ship to the 48 states We are unable to change an address after a package leaves. Our warehouse ships on the weekends, but our offices are closed. If you order today, your order will leave the following business day Contact Us Through Ebay Messages Only Office Hours Monday - Friday: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm EASTERN. Warehouse Hours of Operation Monday - Sunday: 6:00 am - 4:00 pm EASTERN. 30-Day Limited Warranty If you have changed your mind, you may return this to us for any reason. If your item is damaged, or different than expected, please contact us through ebay messages We will be happy to assist with any question you have *Sales Tax For shipments to Ohio addresses, we are required by State law to collect 6.75% Sales Tax. For shipments to KY addresses, we are required by State law to collect 6% Sales Tax For shipments to NV addresses, we are required by State law to collect 8.265% Sales Tax About Us Payment Shipping Returns Store Contact Us
$
36.13
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Condition: New
Location: USA
$
19.99
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Condition: New with tags
Location: Port Washington,NY,USA
Brand: Rubymont
Features:1. The design of the kinesiology full leg sleeves adds pressure on your leg muscles thereby improving exercise efficiency.2. It also stabilizes core muscle groups of your lower limbs resulting in enhanced power output and improvement of exercise endurance. When you do strenuous exercise you produce lactic acid, the sleeves help to reduce the accumulation of the acid and reduces soreness. Good for sports: Great for people who participate in track and field, cycling, running, brisk walking ... moreand mountain climbing. Good for work: At the workplace it can help people who need to move heavy objects. How to choose the right fit: Measure the largest portion of your leg and thigh. If your size overlaps 2 sizes, then choose a model based on your preferred compression feel. For a first time user, we recommend you choose a slightly larger size. Product Size: Small Medium Large Arm Size: 9.4”-11” 10”-13” 12”-14” (cm) 24-28 26-32 30-36 Washing instruction:1. Wash with cold water and air dry. Do not dry clean. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.2. Lifetime of the product depends on frequency of use and method of washing and maintenance. It is recommended you alternatively wear two pairs in order to increase the life of the product. Every 5-6 months or when the tension dissipates a new replacement is recommended. The product has passed strict tests of the medical pressure measurement device MST Professional. NOTE We do our best to reveal merchandise condition for each item listed on eBay store. If you have any question about the item you received, please feel free to contact us first. Customer satisfaction is our mission. Return Policy Item must be returned within: 30 Days Refund will be given as: Money Back Return policy details: 100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! If you are unhappy with the product for any reason, contact us. Send it back in the same condition that you received it including any free gift- with all tags attached in original bags for a FULL REFUND less shipping charges! The returned item(s) must be shipped at your own expense. International shipments are via USPS First-Class Mail® International or USPS Priority Mail International. International delivery time will vary by destination. Insurance included for international package in shipping and handling. We cannot provide insurance on items shipped TO the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua/New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, Yugoslavia, International Customers:· Although the U.S. Government (U.S. Postal Service) claims your USPS package should arrive within 7 to 14 business days from the shipment date, we have been experiencing shipment times more in the range of 1 TO 3 MONTHS (or longer) for other international orders. As we have NO control over customs, PLEASE take this into consideration BEFORE placing your order with us!  NOTE ON IMPORT DUTIES: Please be aware that most all countries will add some form of 'Import Duties' for goods & merchandise imported in from a foreign country (i.e., The United States). We have no control over this nor can we advise as to what each individual country may or may not add to the cost of your shipment. However on average we would estimate Import Fees may run as much as 50% of the cost of the product. We advice you to consult your own government's foreign goods policies prior to ordering. In any case any Import Fees incurred are the sole responsibility of the customer. We can not ship "as a gift".
$
5499.00
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Condition: New
Location: Seekonk,MA,USA
Brand: Landice
Landice L7 CLUB Executive TreadmillLandice treadmills have over 40 years field experience in the harshest club environments. The Landice L7 Club Executive treadmill represents the culmination of this experience. Using the latest in engineering technology, uncompromised materials, and old-fashioned American craftsmanship, these treadmills offer the features and dependability today’s high volume health clubs demand. Designed specifically for high-volume usage in health club settings, the Club treadmills ... moreare ideal for walkers, joggers and serious runners alike. An aluminum frame and whisper quiet 4 HP continuous duty motor are just some of the features found on the Club. The L7 offers one of the lowest step-up heights in the industry.L7 Club Treadmill Highlights The L7 Club treadmill features a four-horsepower continuous-duty drive motor ranging in speed from 0.5 to 11.0 mph. The rust-free aluminum frame contains a 1-inch thick reversible deck with 4-ply tread, capable of reaching a 15% elevation.Landice Control Center The Landice Control Center comes standard on the L7 Club Treadmill. Included is an integrated reading/accessory rack; a personal cooling fan; and a convenient water bottle holder. Check out our additional items that will enhance your workout in the console image.VFX Shock Absorption System Landice is the industry leader in treadmill shock absorption. Our VFX Shock Absorption System is based on medical research to provide optimum comfort, smoothness and reliability while reducing the risk of injury. Five-times softer than grass, it is designed for runners and walkers seeking significant impact reduction. Landice L7 Club Executive Treadmill Specifications:User Capacity 400 lbs. Machine Weight300 lbs. Dimensions35” W x 76.5” L x 60” HRunning Surface22” W x 58” LPower 220 VAC, 60Hz, 15A Club (standard)Roller2 1/2” 14lbsStep-up Height5 1/2”Speed0.5 to 11 mph - CLUBIncline0% - 15% Drive System 4 HP Continuous duty motorDeck 1” - ReversibleControl PanelsPro Trainer, Pro Sports, Cardio, ExecutiveExecutive Console FeaturesDisplay9" Touch Screen (800 x 480 graphics). Workout Feedback: Time, Heart Rate, Distance, Calories, Calories/HR, METs, Incline, Speed, Pace, Lap Time, Laps, Clock, Zone Time, Average Pulse, Pulse, Altitude, Climb RatesPrograms17 Built-in programs, 5 User defined programs, 9 Interactive HRC programs. Programs: Intermediate, Advanced, Interval, Fat Burn, Endurance, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Firefighter, Balke, Distance, Time Calories, and 5 Race programs (1/2 Mile - 10K)Road Screens and LandmarksCity, Beach, Desert, Lake, Mountain, 1 Track | Statue of Liberty, Washington Monument, Seattle Space Needle, Eiffel Tower, Empire State Building, Freedom TowerKeypadNumeric keypad with express speed and incline keysHeart RateContact heart rate system BluetoothTransmit workout information to Landice App (see website for details)Warranty InformationCommercial Warranty5 Year Parts; 2 Years Wear Items; 1 Year Labor
$
19.99
Buy It Now
$3.99 Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: Port Washington,NY,USA
Brand: Rubymont
Features:1. The design of the kinesiology full leg sleeves adds pressure on your leg muscles thereby improving exercise efficiency.2. It also stabilizes core muscle groups of your lower limbs resulting in enhanced power output and improvement of exercise endurance. When you do strenuous exercise you produce lactic acid, the sleeves help to reduce the accumulation of the acid and reduces soreness. Good for sports: Great for people who participate in track and field, cycling, running, brisk walking ... moreand mountain climbing. Good for work: At the workplace it can help people who need to move heavy objects. How to choose the right fit: Measure the largest portion of your leg and thigh. If your size overlaps 2 sizes, then choose a model based on your preferred compression feel. For a first time user, we recommend you choose a slightly larger size. Product Size: Small Medium Large Arm Size: 9.4”-11” 10”-13” 12”-14” (cm) 24-28 26-32 30-36 Washing instruction:1. Wash with cold water and air dry. Do not dry clean. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.2. Lifetime of the product depends on frequency of use and method of washing and maintenance. It is recommended you alternatively wear two pairs in order to increase the life of the product. Every 5-6 months or when the tension dissipates a new replacement is recommended. The product has passed strict tests of the medical pressure measurement device MST Professional. NOTE We do our best to reveal merchandise condition for each item listed on eBay store. If you have any question about the item you received, please feel free to contact us first. Customer satisfaction is our mission. Return Policy Item must be returned within: 30 Days Refund will be given as: Money Back Return policy details: 100% SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! If you are unhappy with the product for any reason, contact us. Send it back in the same condition that you received it including any free gift- with all tags attached in original bags for a FULL REFUND less shipping charges! The returned item(s) must be shipped at your own expense. International shipments are via USPS First-Class Mail® International or USPS Priority Mail International. International delivery time will vary by destination. Insurance included for international package in shipping and handling. We cannot provide insurance on items shipped TO the following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua/New Guinea, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, Yugoslavia, International Customers:· Although the U.S. Government (U.S. Postal Service) claims your USPS package should arrive within 7 to 14 business days from the shipment date, we have been experiencing shipment times more in the range of 1 TO 3 MONTHS (or longer) for other international orders. As we have NO control over customs, PLEASE take this into consideration BEFORE placing your order with us!  NOTE ON IMPORT DUTIES: Please be aware that most all countries will add some form of 'Import Duties' for goods & merchandise imported in from a foreign country (i.e., The United States). We have no control over this nor can we advise as to what each individual country may or may not add to the cost of your shipment. However on average we would estimate Import Fees may run as much as 50% of the cost of the product. We advice you to consult your own government's foreign goods policies prior to ordering. In any case any Import Fees incurred are the sole responsibility of the customer. We can not ship "as a gift".
$
30.62
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Condition: New with tags
Location: USA
MPN: SAQ-SC01-02
Brand: SKLZ
SKLZ Speed Chute Resistance Spring Trainer Training Parachute Adjustable Belt Description Chase your goals with the original SKLZ Speed Chute, a speed resistance training parachute for all kinds of athletes. Train to improve your speed, stamina, strength, and acceleration. This chute provides 15-30 lbs. of resistance, allowing you to improve your stride length and frequency. The easy release belt buckle gives you the lightweight, explosive feeling as you release the chute mid stride. The SKLZ Speed ... moreChute comes with a 2” thick, durable nylon easy release belt that is adjustable for almost any athlete. With a 360-degree rotation ring, it provides you the freedom to practice a variety of drills, so you can train in any direction. Let the pull of the chute encourage an upright posture, while the free-motion ring allows for a free-sliding, comfortable training aid. When positioned on the right or left hip, it allows you to get off the line laterally. When positioned at the center of your back, it allows for a linear or parallel start. Whether you’re training for sprints, or you’re trying to stay fit during the off season, this resistance training parachute will help keep your goals in gear. You can feel confident that you’re running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Features: FIND EXPLOSIVE SPEED. The SKLZ Speed Chute is made for all athletes with serious drive. Train with this chute to increase your strength and speed. Feel the burn as your challenge yourself. Whether you’re in track and field, football, soccer, basketball, or any other sport, your speed will improve with the use of this resistance training chute.BUILD ENDURANCE. Get more powerful leg drive and stride frequency with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Maximize acceleration and top running speeds through resistance and over speed training. Use it when sprinting, to help increase muscular endurance, improve your stamina, and accelerate faster. This speed training parachute will give you the authority you’re looking for so you can master your sport.ADJUSTABLE BELT. The adjustable 2-inch heavy-duty nylon belt is fully adjustable and will comfortably fit almost any athlete. The belt rotates 360 degrees and has a free motion ring, meaning you can sprint in any direction. With the ability to have a linear or parallel start, you can truly adjust your training to your specific needs. The quick-release belt buckle lets you feel acceleration bursts, so you can reach top speed.EASY TO USE AND STORE. Spend more time training, and less time setting up. With a 54”diameter, this chute stores easily in an included training bag. It offers approximately 15-30 lbs. of resistance, which allows you to improve stride length and frequency. The built-in mesh panel helps to stabilize the SKLZ Speed Chute during training, which prevents the cords from tangling, translating to less hassle and more hustle.INVEST IN YOUR GOALS. Taking care of your body is a crucial part to reaching your physical potential and athletic goals. Train yourself to be your best. SKLZ prides itself on providing the proper tools to help athletes reach their peak performance level. You can feel confident that you’re running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Product Details: Product Dimensions: 7.9 x 7.1 x 2 inches ; 7 ouncesShipping Weight: 13.6 ouncesInternational Shipping: This item can be shipped to select countries outside of the U.S. Learn MoreCalifornia residents: Click here for Proposition 65 warning.Item model number: SAQ-SC01-02 Handling We will ship all orders within 3 business day of payment. Delivery We Do Not Ship Outside of the Continental US. Return Policy All items qualify for returns within 30 days of receipt. Buyer is responsible for return shipping on any item that is not damaged. Feedback We take our reputation seriously, we buy and sell online, so we understand the value of trust. If you are unsatisfied with your order, please contact us and we will work with you to resolve it to your satisfaction.
$
31.88
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Condition: New
Location: USA
UPC: 831345001250
MPN: ZSSZSC
Brand: SKLZ
YOU-SHOP-1 Visit store Contact us SKLZ Speed Chute Resistance Sprint Trainer - Speed Training Parachute Helps Maxi Expedited Shipping Available For Additional $1.99 Item description Brand name: SKLZ Product description: Chase your goals with the original SKLZ Speed Chute, a speed resistance training parachute for all kinds of athletes. Train to improve your speed, stamina, strength, and acceleration. This chute provides 15-30 lbs. of resistance, allowing you to improve your stride length and frequency. ... moreThe easy release belt buckle gives you the lightweight, explosive feeling as you release the chute mid stride. The SKLZ Speed Chute comes with a 2” thick, durable nylon easy release belt that is adjustable for almost any athlete. With a 360-degree rotation ring, it provides you the freedom to practice a variety of drills, so you can train in any direction. Let the pull of the chute encourage an upright posture, while the free-motion ring allows for a free-sliding, comfortable training aid. When positioned on the right or left hip, it allows you to get off the line laterally. When positioned at the center of your back, it allows for a linear or parallel start. Whether you’re training for sprints, or you’re trying to stay fit during the off season, this resistance training parachute will help keep your goals in gear. You can feel confident that you’re running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Features: FIND EXPLOSIVE SPEED. The SKLZ Speed Chute is made for all athletes with serious drive. Train with this chute to increase your strength and speed. Feel the burn as your challenge yourself. Whether youre in track and field, football, soccer, basketball, or any other sport, your speed will improve with the use of this resistance training chute. BUILD ENDURANCE. Get more powerful leg drive and stride frequency with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Maximize acceleration and top running speeds through resistance and over speed training. Use it when sprinting, to help increase muscular endurance, improve your stamina, and accelerate faster. This speed training parachute will give you the authority youre looking for so you can master your sport. ADJUSTABLE BELT. The adjustable 2-inch heavy-duty nylon belt is fully adjustable and will comfortably fit almost any athlete. The belt rotates 360 degrees and has a free motion ring, meaning you can sprint in any direction. With the ability to have a linear or parallel start, you can truly adjust your training to your specific needs. The quick-release belt buckle lets you feel acceleration bursts, so you can reach top speed. EASY TO USE AND STORE. Spend more time training, and less time setting up. With a 54"diameter, this chute stores easily in an included training bag. It offers approximately 15-30 lbs. of resistance, which allows you to improve stride length and frequency. The built-in mesh panel helps to stabilize the SKLZ Speed Chute during training, which prevents the cords from tangling, translating to less hassle and more hustle. INVEST IN YOUR GOALS. Taking care of your body is a crucial part to reaching your physical potential and athletic goals. Train yourself to be your best. SKLZ prides itself on providing the proper tools to help athletes reach their peak performance level. You can feel confident that youre running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Item model number: SAQ-SC01-02 Color: Navy Size: 48-Inch Weight: 0.9 pounds Feedbacks Customer satisfaction is highly important to us. If you have any problem with your order, Please contact us immediately and we will do our best to make you satisfied, please do not leave a negative feedback, we guarantee that your issue will be solved. As long as you are happy with your purchase and our service, please leave us a positive feedback. Your feedback is very important to our business on eBay. Thank you Shipping details Our standard shipping service is free and usually includes tracking number. Transit time varies from 2-6 business days. We also offer 2-day shipping options for most of our products. Please make sure to provide the correct shipping address during checkout as the address cannot be changed after checkout. It is recommended to leave phone number in the order details. We are not responsible for any incorrect or undeliverable addresses. At this time, we only ship to physical addresses within the continental USA, we do not ship to Puerto Rico, P.O. boxes, APO or FPO addresses. Orders shipped to a freight forwarding companies are the responsibility of the buyer and the forwarding company if lost in transit. Return & refund policy We provide a 14 days return policy for our products. Please contact us for a return authorization and the return shipping address. Return shipping and handling is the responsibility of the buyer and all returns are subject to restocking fee. Please note, only items in new, unopened conditions will be accepted. The package of the returned item(s) must be completely intact, and all accessory(s) inside the package must be original and in perfect condition. Items returned must be received within 14 days from purchase. No refund or replacement is issued after this period of time. Please allow up to 7 working days for your return to be processed after it is received by us. Please note: Personal items, Open software, music, games, movies, Food & liquid are non-returnable and non-resalable. Once these items leave our warehouse, they are considered used, and therefore cannot be returned. Exchange If you receive defective or damaged item, we will replace the item as long as it is reported within 5 days of the receipt date. Exchanges are subject to availability. Payment We accept PayPal payment. All major credit cards are accepted through secure PayPal payment. PayPal is most secure online payment method.
$
10.00
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Condition: New with tags
Location: Palmer Lake,CO,USA
Brand: PaceWheel
The perfect tool for distance runners and coaches! The PaceWheel is being used by coaches and athletes in all 50 U.S. States and 18 countries. USA Track & Field's Chair of Coaching Education and the head Track and Cross Country Coach at West Point, Troy Engle says that "The PaceWheel is a breakthrough for coaches committed to the science of training distance runners! It provides training paces based on hard science in a format that anyone can use -- it completely removes guess-work and potential ... morefor mathematical errors. Every serious endurance coach could benefit from it." The Original PaceWheel is a circular calculator that makes figuring out your training paces simple. All of your training paces are personalized to you based on your recent performances in any race from 800 meters to the Marathon. Based on over 40 years of research, the training paces the PaceWheel calculates for you will fit in with any training system, including Jack Daniels' Running Formula, Jeff Galloway, John Bingham, etc. The PaceWheel is in use by USA Track & Field coaches and athletes, pro triathletes, and Physical Training instructors for the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. Plus it covers marathoners from 5:58 to as fast as 2:21 and equivalent abilities in other race distances (half-marathon, 10k, 5k, 2-mile, 1-mile, and 800 meters). How to Use the PaceWheel Find your athlete's finish time from a recent 800, mile, 2-mile, 5k, 10k, Half-Marathon, or Marathon in the Current Fitness (purple zone) windows. The PaceWheel automatically calculates in the other windows the following essential training paces: •Aerobic Base Training •Marathon Training •Lactate Threshold (Tempo Run) Development •VO2 Max Development Intervals •Running Economy Repetitions Begin in the Current Fitness ZoneAerobic Base Training Pace (blue zone) is calculated at 70% of velocity at VO2 Max, and is essential for increasing red blood cell count, developing mitochondria, improving recovery, and training the body to burn fat as its primary fuel source during running.Aerobic Base Training PaceMarathon Race Pace (green zone) is calculated at 84% of velocity at VO2 Max, and is used by runners training specifically for marathons and half-marathons in place of a long run during the final phases of training. Marathon Race Pace allows the athlete to prepare for race conditions including learning to hydrate and re-fuel while running for long periods.Marathon Race PaceThe Lactate Threshold (yellow zone) is calculated at 88% of velocity at VO2 Max. Training at the Lactate Threshold improves the body's ability to remove muscle waste that develops during intense exercise. The PaceWheel provides the Lactate Threshold pace broken up in Minutes per Mile, Minutes per Kilometer, and in Minutes per 400m lap.Lactate Threshold Development PaceVO2 Max Development Intervals (orange zone) are calculated at 98% of velocity at VO2 Max, and intervals at this speed improve the body's Aerobic Capacity and increase an athlete's ability to buffer blood lactate. The PaceWheel lists VO2 Max intervals in Minutes per Mile, Minutes per Kilometer, and in Minutes per 400m lap.VO2 Max Development IntervalsRunning Economy Repetitions (red zone) are provided in 200-meter and 400-meter values at 110% and 120% of velocity at VO2 Max in order to provide a target range for distance runners to improve their biomechanical efficiency and muscle memory for fast running.Running Economy RepetitionsPaceWheel for iPhonePaceWheel for Android
$
799.99
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Condition: New
Location: Chico,CA,USA
MPN: 010-01733-00
Brand: Garmin
Multisport GPS Watch with Full-color Map GuidanceUltimate multisport GPS watch with full-color TOPO U.S. mapping, routable cycling maps and other outdoor navigation featuresFit for adventure with rugged design that features stainless steel bezel, buttons and rear caseBuilt-in navigation sensors include GPS and GLONASS capability to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone as well as 3-axis compass, gyroscope and barometric altimeterPut key stats at your fingertips with the performance ... morewidget that shows your training status, training load and moreConnected features² include smart notifications, automatic uploads to Garmin Connect™ online fitness community and personalization through free watch faces and apps from our Connect IQ™ store Combining world-class performance with the best features of our fitness and outdoor watches, fēnix 5X is the premiere multisport training companion. It’s the first fēnix series watch to offer full-color TOPO U.S. mapping for at-a-glance navigation and location reference – so you can beat yesterday, and be sure of getting back. You get advanced features such as Elevate™ wrist heart rate technology¹, built-in activity profiles, performance metrics and training status readings that show the fitness-enhancing effects of your workout. Smart notifications² help you stay in touch on the go. Plus, QuickFit™ bands let you tailor the look to any lifestyle or activity – no tools required. Go from workplace to workout without breaking stride.Rugged Endurance, Elegant Style The fēnix 5X multisport watch features a protective PVD-coated stainless steel bezel and buttons and a reinforced housing for extra durability. Each watch is water-rated to 100 meters and features advanced GPS and GLONASS satellite reception to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone. You can count on long battery life in each mode of operation (varies by model, depending on settings). A bright, high-resolution, full-color Garmin Chroma Display™ with LED backlighting assures great readability in all ambient conditions – from harsh daylight to dim lighting. Transflective technology that reflects and transmits light at the same time enables the watch face to become even more readable under intense sunlight. Sapphire editions feature a scratch-resistant sapphire lens and are also Wi-Fi®-enabled so your watch can connect to your wireless network and automatically send activity uploads for sharing on Garmin Connect.Wrist-based Heart Rate¹ On your wrist, Elevate wrist heart rate technology lets you monitor your heart rate without wearing a chest strap. In addition to counting steps and monitoring sleep, the watch uses heart rate to provide calories burned information and quantify the intensity of your fitness activities.A Full-color Roadmap to Success Whether you’re in the city or on the trail, an array of fēnix 5X on-watch mapping and navigation features help keep you oriented and on-course at a glance.Full-color TOPO U.S. mapping that comes preloaded; map data is optimized for at-a-glance navigation and location tracking on your wristRound-trip Run and Round-trip Ride routing options give runners and cyclists the ability to enter a distance they want to travel and have the watch suggest appropriate coursesEasy-to-read guidance cues provide banners on the display that show upcoming turnsAround Me map mode displays locations nearby in a simplified graphical interface that increases awareness and ease when navigating in unfamiliar environmentsData overlays on the map highlight key information so you don’t have to switch screens while in an activityGroupTrack allows you to keep tabs on your buddies for adventures such as skiing; LiveTrack allows friends to follow your adventures in real time²Advanced Performance Metrics Every fēnix 5X watch is packed with sophisticated training features to help monitor your form and performance³. Enhanced readouts for Training Status and Training Effect show aerobic and anaerobic benefits of your workout – so you can see how your workouts are paying off and even compare results with your peers. The VO2 max estimator crunches data, including your running speed, beats per minute and heart rate variability, to estimate the maximum volume of oxygen you can consume per minute. And other fitness metrics include recovery advisor with a recovery timer and recovery check, plus a race predictor that estimates your ideal finish time based on your current VO2 max number.Advanced Running Dynamics Now you can go further with your running data. Garmin training features that tap into extended physiological metrics and advanced running dynamics¹ can help improve your form and overall performance. These include:Performance condition: After running for 6-20 minutes, fēnix 5X compares your real-time condition to your average fitness levelsLactate threshold: Through analysis of your pace and heart rate, fēnix 5X estimates the point where your muscles start to rapidly fatigueCadence — number of steps per minuteStride length — shows your stride length in real time Want more? By pairing your watch with a compatible heart rate chest strap such as the HRM-Run™, you can access these additional fēnix 5X metrics³:Vertical oscillation and ratio — the degree of 'bounce' in your running motion and the benefit ratio to stride lengthGround contact time and balance — shows how much time, in the running motion, your foot is on the ground rather than in flight and lets you check your running symmetryStress score: fēnix 5X measures your heart rate variability while standing still, for 3 minutes, to provide you with an estimated stress level. The scale of this is 1 to 100; low scores indicate lower stress levelsSwim Profiles, Skiing, Paddle Sports, Golf and More Beyond their running functions, fenix 5 watches also offer special feature sets to help with swim training, skiing, golfing and paddle sports, including stand-up paddle boarding and rowing. For swimmers, the device tracks your distance, pace, stroke count and more. Ski/Board mode puts speed, distance, vertical drop and an automatic run counter (with Auto Pause for the lift line) and more at your fingertips. The feature set for paddle sports includes stroke count, stroke rate and even distance per stroke. Golf mode gives you yardage to the front, back and middle of the green for any single course you’ve downloaded from Garmin Connect – and also adds enhancements such as stat tracking (fairways hit, etc.), Green View, AutoShot detection and auto measure.Navigate the Great Outdoors, Your Way Each model in the fēnix 5 series provides comprehensive navigation and tracking to guide you on and off the beaten path using GPS plus ABC (altimeter, barometer and compass) sensor capabilities. The built-in altimeter provides elevation data to accurately monitor ascent and descent, while the barometer can be used to predict weather changes by showing short-term trends in air pressure. The 3-axis electronic compass keeps your bearing, whether you’re moving or not. In addition, there’s an internal gyroscope to help improve position accuracy (and battery life) in UltraTrac™ mode – as well as a thermometer to help you monitor changing weather conditions.So Many Ways to Stay Connected All fēnix 5 series models can support smart notifications when paired with a compatible device. Receive emails, texts and alerts right on your watch – whether you're on the trail, on the golf course or simply away from your desk. Other connected features include automatic uploads to our Garmin Connect online fitness community, live tracking and social media sharing through our free Garmin Connect and Garmin Connect™ Mobile applications.Custom Apps and Watch Faces You can customize your fēnix 5X watch with free downloads from our Connect IQ store. Change your watch face, add data fields or get apps and widgets for information at a glance. Garmin is continually working with top companies and developers to build partnerships that add even more value to your fēnix multisport watch. Names such as Uber, Strava, AccuWeather and many others offer apps and enhancements that let you tailor your fēnix 5X to fit your lifestyle in more ways than ever.Wear Your Personality on Your Sleeve You can also download the free Garmin Face-It™ watch face app to customize your fēnix with any photo from your smartphone. Just download the app, choose an image from your photo library, adjust the style for time and set it as your watch’s face. Whether it’s a scenic view from your last hike or a picture of your new puppy, with Garmin you can add personality to your watch that’s uniquely you.What's Included In The Box?The Garmin fenix 5X Slate Gray Sapphire with Metal Band ships with the following items included: fēnix 5X SapphireExtra silicone Black QuickFit™ 26 watch bandCharging/data cableDocumentationFeatures and TipsHere is a list of fenix 5X Slate Gray Sapphire with Metal Band features, along with a few user tips. Physical & PerformancePhysical dimensions2.0” x 2.0” x 0.7” (51.0 x 51.0 x 17.5 mm)Display size, WxH1.2” (30.5 mm) diameterDisplay resolution, WxH240 x 240 pixels; sunlight-visible, always-on, low power, colorful displayColor display: yesNegative mode display: yesWeightWith silicone band: 3.5 oz (98.0 g)BatteryRechargeable lithium-ionBattery lifeUp to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings), up to 20 hours in GPS mode, and up to 50 hours in UltraTrac battery saver modeWater rating10 ATMGPS-enabled: yesGLONASS: yesHigh-sensitivity receiver: yesBarometric altimeter: yesElectronic compass: yesSmart notifications (displays email, text and other alerts when paired with your compatible phone): yesVibration alert: yesMusic control: yesFind my phone: yesVIRB® control: yesWatch functionsTime of day (12/24h), calendar (day/date), daily alarm,stop watch, timer, sunrise/sunset alertsMaps & MemoryBuilt-in memory12 GBCustom POIs (ability to add additional points of interest): yesWaypoints/favorites/locations1,000Routes30Track log10,000 points; 100 saved tracksRunning FeaturesVirtual Pacer™ (compares current pace to target): yesV02 max estimate: yesRecovery advisor: yesRace predictor: yesRunning dynamics: yesAccelerometer (calculates distance for indoor workouts, without need for a foot pod): yesPersonal records: yesCycling FeaturesCompatible with Vector™: yesMultiple bike profiles: yesBike speed/cadence sensorYes (optional)Performance FeaturesHeart rate monitorYes (wrist-based)Virtual Partner® (train against a digital person): yesVirtual Racer™ (compete against other activities): yesCourses (compete against previous activities): yesAuto Pause® (pauses and resumes timer based on speed): yesAuto Lap® (automatically starts a new lap): yesAuto Scroll (cycles through data pages during workout): yesMulti-sport (changes sport mode with a press of a button): yesAuto multisport (switch sport modes with 1 button press): yesAdvanced workouts (create custom, goal-oriented workouts): yesPace alert (triggers alarm if you vary from preset pace): yesTime/distance alert (triggers alarm when you reach goal): yesInterval training (set up exercise and rest intervals): yesHeart rate-based calorie computation: yesCalculates calories burned: yesTraining Effect (measures impact of an activity on your aerobic fitness): yesCustomizable screen(s): yesPower meter compatible (displays power data from compatible 3rd party ANT+™-enabled power meters): yesSwimming FeaturesPool swim metrics (lengths, distance, pace, stroke count/rate, calories): yesStroke recognition: yesOpen water swim metrics (distance, pace, stroke count/rate, calories): yesSwim workouts: yesGolfing FeaturesMeasures shot distance (calculates exact yardage for shots from anywhere on course): yesYardage to F/M/B (distance to front, middle and back of green): yesYardage to layups/doglegs: yesDigital scorecard: yesOutdoor FeaturesHunt/fish calendar: yesSun and moon information: yesArea calculation: yesActivity Tracking FeaturesStep counter: yesAuto goal (learns your activity level and assigns a daily step goal): yesMove bar (displays on device after a period of inactivity; walk for a couple of minutes to reset it): yesSleep monitoring (monitors total sleep and periods of movement or restful sleep): yesGarmin Connect®Garmin Connect™ compatible (online community where you analyze, categorize and share data): yesAutomatic sync (automatically transfers data to your computer): yesAdditionalMaps: Preloaded topographic and cycling maps, plus more than 40,000 golf courses around the worldConnect IQ™ app support: Yes (watch faces, data fields, widgets and apps)EXO™ antenna (GPS/GLONASS): YesWi-Fi®: Yes (Sapphire versions only)ANT+®: Yes (all versions)Bluetooth®: Low Energy (all versions)Round Trip Run: YesLactate Threshold: YesPre-loaded Garmin cycling maps: YesRound Trip Ride: YesTraining Effect 2.0 (measures impact of an activity on your aerobic & anaerobic fitness): YesTraining Load: YesTraining Status: YesLactate Threshold: YesWeather Alerts: YesUltraTrac: Yestempe™ sensor support: YesTracBack: YesSki features: YesPhysiological measurements: YesSUP/Rowing: YesFoot pod: yes (optional)Specifications General1. Unit dimensions, WxHxD:2.0 in x 2.0 in x 0.7 in (51.0 x 51.0 x 17.5 mm)2. Display size, WxH:1.2 in (30.5 mm) diameter3. Display resolution, WxH:240 x 240 pixels4. Display type:Color display5. Weight:With silicone band: 3.5 oz (98.0 g)6. Battery:Rechargeable lithium-ion7. Battery life:Up to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings)8. Waterproof:Yes (IPX7)9. GPS-enabled:✔10. Floats:✘11. High-sensitivity receiver:✔12. RoHS version available:✔13. Preloaded maps:✔14. Ability to add maps:✔15. Topographic Map Compatible:✔16. Marine Software Compatible:✘17. Built-in memory:12 GB18. Waypoints/favorites/locations:100019. Touchscreen:✘20. Garmin Connect™ compatible (online community where you analyze, categorize and share data):✔21. Widescreen✘22. Custom Maps Compatible✘ Automotive23. Routes:3024. Basemap:✔25. Voice prompts (e.g. "Turn right in 500 ft."):✘26. Speaks street names (e.g. "Turn right ON ELM STREET in 500 ft.") :✘27. Speech recognition (navigate with voice commands):✘28. 3D map view:✘29. Automatic routing (turn by turn routing on roads):✘30. Auto sort multiple destinations (provides most direct route):✘31. Auto re-route (fast off-route and detour recalculation):✘32. Choice of route setup (faster time, shorter distance, off road):✘33. Route avoidance (avoid highways, tolls etc.):✘34. Custom POIs (ability to add additional points of interest):✔35. Hands-free calling with Bluetooth® wireless technology:✘36. FM traffic compatible:✘37. XM® Navtraffic (includes basic weather) & Radio for U.S. compatible:✘38. MSN® Direct for U.S. compatible:✘39. Where Am I? feature (find closest hospitals, police & gas stations, nearest address & intersection):✘40. Car locator feature (marks position when removed from windshield mount):✘41. MP3 player:✔42. Audio book player:✘43. Picture viewer:✘44. Configurable vehicle icons (select car-shaped icons for map navigation):✘45. World travel clock, currency & measurement converter, calculator:✘46. Qwerty or ABC keyboard (choose keyboard layout):✘47. Remote control:✘48. FM transmitter:✘49. Headphone jack/audio line-out:✘50. Audio/video input/output:✘51. Dead reckoning:✘52. Garmin Lock™ (anti-theft feature):✘53. Automotive-friendly:✘54. Motorcycle-friendly:✘55. Data Services with Bluetooth Technology✘56. Speed Limit Indicator✘57. Lifetime Traffic✘58. Lifetime Maps Included✘59. trafficTrends (calculates routes from predicted traffic flow)✘60. myTrends (predicts routes from user's navigation behavior)✘61. Garmin nuLink! Services (accurate real-time travel data)✘62. Multimode (switches modes to drive, hike, bike or boat)✘63. Garmin Garage vehicles compatible (download car icons)✘64. Garmin Garage voices compatible (download custom voices)✘65. Trucking-friendly✘ Outdoor66. Track log:10,000 points; 100 saved tracks67. Electronic compass:Yes (3-axis)68. Barometric altimeter:✔69. Hunt/fish calendar:✔70. Sun and moon information:✔71. Tide tables:✘72. Area calculation:✔ Fitness73. Heart rate monitor compatible:Yes (included)74. Bike speed/cadence sensor compatible:Yes (optional accessory)75. Foot pod compatible:Yes (optional accessory)76. Automatic sync (automatically transfers data to your computer):✔77. Garmin Training Center® software compatible:✔78. Virtual Partner® (train against a digital person):✔79. Courses (compete against previous workouts):✔80. Auto Pause® (pauses and resumes timer based on speed):✔81. Auto Lap® (automatically starts a new lap):✔82. Auto Scroll (cycles through data pages during workout):✔83. Multi-sport (changes sport mode with a press of a button):✔84. Advanced workouts (create custom, goal-oriented workouts):✔85. Simple workouts (input time, distance and calorie goals):✔86. Pace alert (triggers alarm if you vary from preset pace):✔87. Time/distance alert (triggers alarm when you reach goal)✔88. Interval training (set up exercise and rest intervals)✔89. Customizable screen(s)✔90. Power meter compatible (displays power data from compatible 3rd party ANT+Sport™-enabled power meters)✔91. Sport Watch✔
$
99.00
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Condition: New
Location: Brooklyn,NY,USA
MPN: SW0100SGXNA
Brand: Magellan
switch is a crossover GPS watch designed primarily for running but expandable to cycling, swimming and other outdoor activities. Switch tracks position precisely with GPS satellite data and records time, distance, speed/pace, elevation and more. High-sensitivity GPS allows Switch to acquire satellites quickly and track movement in many tough environments - near tall buildings, on mountainous terrain or under heavy tree cover. By using ANT+TM wireless technology, the Switch easily connects to a Magellan ... moreheart rate monitor or any ANT+ compatible heart rate monitor, foot pod, bike speed/cadence sensor and power meter. Boasting a high-resolution display, Switch provides superior readability in varying light conditions - especially bright light. With 8 hours of battery life in workout mode and 3 weeks in watch mode using a rechargeable lithium-ion battery, Switch has enough gas in the tank to capture most activities. And for endurance athletes, Magellan offers an optional Battery Extender Pack that provides 16 hours of additional battery life, for a total of 24 hours. Switch is water-resistant to 50 meters, so it can be worn for an extended period in water to track swimming activities and other high intensity water and snow activities. The slim design and flexible wristband mean Switch can be used in a variety of conditions. Switch breaks away from the pack by introducing a new training concept for GPS watches - Activity Pacer. Once a desired distance, time and speed/pace have been set, Activity Pacer not only shows the targeted progress, but more importantly, provides specific targets to attain or maintain the original goal. Additionally, Switch includes fitness and training features such as customizable activity screens with over 80 data fields to choose from, 9 activity profiles to save device configurations based on activity type, auto lap, auto pause, backtrack navigation, marking location
$
849.99
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Condition: New
Location: New York,NY,USA
MPN: 010-01733-04
Brand: Garmin
Up for sale is one Garmin fēnix 5X Slate Gray Sapphire Multi-Sports GPS Watch 010-01733-04 with Black Metal Band, 100% Authentic. This item is NEW and comes with in the original manufacturers Shipping Package. Shipping is FREE anywhere in the continental USA. Description from the manufacturer: Multisport GPS Watch with Full-color Map Guidance Ultimate multisport GPS watch with full-color TOPO U.S. mapping, routable cycling maps and other outdoor navigation featuresFit for adventure with rugged design ... morethat features stainless steel bezel, buttons and rear caseBuilt-in navigation sensors include GPS and GLONASS capability to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone as well as 3-axis compass, gyroscope and barometric altimeterPut key stats at your fingertips with the performance widget that shows your training status, training load and moreConnected features² include smart notifications, automatic uploads to Garmin Connect™ online fitness community and personalization through free watch faces and apps from our Connect IQ™ storeBattery life: up to 12 days in smartwatch mode (depending on settings), up to 20 hours in GPS mode or up to 35 hours in UltraTrac™ battery saver mode Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
$
13.99
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Condition: New other (see details)
Location: Chicago,IL,USA
Brand: SKLZ
SKLZ Speed Chute - Resistance Spring Trainer - Speed Training Parachute Helps Maximize Acceleration and Top Running Speed 54 inchesDescriptionChase your goals with the original SKLZ Speed Chute, a speed resistance training parachute for all kinds of athletes. Train to improve your speed, stamina, strength, and acceleration. This chute provides 15-30 lbs. of resistance, allowing you to improve your stride length and frequency. The easy release belt buckle gives you the lightweight, explosive feeling ... moreas you release the chute mid stride. The SKLZ Speed Chute comes with a 2” thick, durable nylon easy release belt that is adjustable for almost any athlete. With a 360-degree rotation ring, it provides you the freedom to practice a variety of drills, so you can train in any direction. Let the pull of the chute encourage an upright posture, while the free-motion ring allows for a free-sliding, comfortable training aid. When positioned on the right or left hip, it allows you to get off the line laterally. When positioned at the center of your back, it allows for a linear or parallel start. Whether you’re training for sprints, or you’re trying to stay fit during the off season, this resistance training parachute will help keep your goals in gear. You can feel confident that you’re running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute.Product Details & FeaturesMake sure this fits. by entering your model number.FIND EXPLOSIVE SPEED. The SKLZ Speed Chute is made for all athletes with serious drive. Train with this chute to increase your strength and speed. Feel the burn as your challenge yourself. Whether youre in track and field, football, soccer, basketball, or any other sport, your speed will improve with the use of this resistance training chute.BUILD ENDURANCE. Get more powerful leg drive and stride frequency with the SKLZ Speed Chute. Maximize acceleration and top running speeds through resistance and over speed training. Use it when sprinting, to help increase muscular endurance, improve your stamina, and accelerate faster. This speed training parachute will give you the authority youre looking for so you can master your sport.ADJUSTABLE BELT. The adjustable 2-inch heavy-duty nylon belt is fully adjustable and will comfortably fit almost any athlete. The belt rotates 360 degrees and has a free motion ring, meaning you can sprint in any direction. With the ability to have a linear or parallel start, you can truly adjust your training to your specific needs. The quick-release belt buckle lets you feel acceleration bursts, so you can reach top speed.EASY TO USE AND STORE. Spend more time training, and less time setting up. With a 54diameter, this chute stores easily in an included training bag. It offers approximately 15-30 lbs. of resistance, which allows you to improve stride length and frequency. The built-in mesh panel helps to stabilize the SKLZ Speed Chute during training, which prevents the cords from tangling, translating to less hassle and more hustle.INVEST IN YOUR GOALS. Taking care of your body is a crucial part to reaching your physical potential and athletic goals. Train yourself to be your best. SKLZ prides itself on providing the proper tools to help athletes reach their peak performance level. You can feel confident that youre running in the right direction with the SKLZ Speed Chute.Product Dimensions: 7.9 x 7.1 x 2 inches ; 7 ouncesShipping Weight: 13.6 ouncesTHE BOX HAS BEEN OPENED BUT THE CHUTE HAS NEVER BEEN TAKEN OUT. EMAIL WITH QUESTIONS!!
$
599.00
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Condition: New
Location: Hong Kong
MPN: 010-01733-10
Brand: Garmin
About Us Feedback Add to Favorites New Arrival Ending Soon Contact Us safe & secure shopping guarantee Quick Reliable 0123456789 Store Category iPad AccessoriesiPhone AccessoriesBatteriesChargersCharms & StylusHeadsets & SpeakersHolders & Car MountsPhone Pouches / CasesScreen ProtectorsWearable TechnologyCameras & CamcordersSmart Toys & RoboticsWatchesOther Store Pages About Seller Payment Shipping Returns Feedback Contact Us IteM Description GARMIN FENIX 5X SAPPHIRE EDITION ULTIMATE MULTISPORT ... moreGPS WATCH WITH FULL-COLOR MAP GUIDANCE SLATE GRAY WITH BLACK BAND WRIST HEART RATE TECHNOLOGY - WATCH SIZE 51MM - 1 YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY Multisport GPS Watch with Full-color Map GuidanceUltimate multisport GPS watch with full-color TOPO U.S. mapping, routable cycling maps and other outdoor navigation featuresFit for adventure with rugged design that features stainless steel bezel, buttons and rear caseBuilt-in navigation sensors include GPS and GLONASS capability to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone as well as 3-axis compass, gyroscope and barometric altimeterPut key stats at your fingertips with the performance widget that shows your training status, training load and moreConnected features² include smart notifications, automatic uploads to Garmin Connect™ online fitness community and personalization through free watch faces and apps from our Connect IQ™ store Combining world-class performance with the best features of our fitness and outdoor watches, fēnix 5X is the premiere multisport training companion. It’s the first fēnix series watch to offer full-color TOPO U.S. mapping for at-a-glance navigation and location reference – so you can beat yesterday, and be sure of getting back. You get advanced features such as Elevate™ wrist heart rate technology¹, built-in activity profiles, performance metrics and training status readings that show the fitness-enhancing effects of your workout. Smart notifications² help you stay in touch on the go. Plus, QuickFit™ bands let you tailor the look to any lifestyle or activity – no tools required. Go from workplace to workout without breaking stride. Rugged Endurance, Elegant StyleThe fēnix 5X multisport watch features a protective PVD-coated stainless steel bezel and buttons and a reinforced housing for extra durability. Each watch is water-rated to 100 meters and features advanced GPS and GLONASS satellite reception to track in more challenging environments than GPS alone. You can count on long battery life in each mode of operation (varies by model, depending on settings). A bright, high-resolution, full-color Garmin Chroma Display™ with LED backlighting assures great readability in all ambient conditions – from harsh daylight to dim lighting. Transflective technology that reflects and transmits light at the same time enables the watch face to become even more readable under intense sunlight. Sapphire editions feature a scratch-resistant sapphire lens and are also Wi-Fi®-enabled so your watch can connect to your wireless network and automatically send activity uploads for sharing on Garmin Connect. Wrist-based Heart Rate¹On your wrist, Elevate wrist heart rate technology lets you monitor your heart rate without wearing a chest strap. In addition to counting steps and monitoring sleep, the watch uses heart rate to provide calories burned information and quantify the intensity of your fitness activities. A Full-color Roadmap to SuccessWhether you’re in the city or on the trail, an array of fēnix 5X on-watch mapping and navigation features help keep you oriented and on-course at a glance.Full-color TOPO U.S. mapping that comes preloaded; map data is optimized for at-a-glance navigation and location tracking on your wristRound-trip Run and Round-trip Ride routing options give runners and cyclists the ability to enter a distance they want to travel and have the watch suggest appropriate coursesEasy-to-read guidance cues provide banners on the display that show upcoming turnsAround Me map mode displays locations nearby in a simplified graphical interface that increases awareness and ease when navigating in unfamiliar environmentsData overlays on the map highlight key information so you don’t have to switch screens while in an activityGroupTrack allows you to keep tabs on your buddies for adventures such as skiing; LiveTrack allows friends to follow your adventures in real time² Advanced Performance MetricsEvery fēnix 5X watch is packed with sophisticated training features to help monitor your form and performance³. Enhanced readouts for Training Status and Training Effect show aerobic and anaerobic benefits of your workout – so you can see how your workouts are paying off and even compare results with your peers. The VO2 max estimator crunches data, including your running speed, beats per minute and heart rate variability, to estimate the maximum volume of oxygen you can consume per minute. And other fitness metrics include recovery advisor with a recovery timer and recovery check, plus a race predictor that estimates your ideal finish time based on your current VO2 max number. Advanced Running DynamicsNow you can go further with your running data. Garmin training features that tap into extended physiological metrics and advanced running dynamics¹ can help improve your form and overall performance. These include: Performance condition: After running for 6-20 minutes, fēnix 5X compares your real-time condition to your average fitness levelsLactate threshold: Through analysis of your pace and heart rate, fēnix 5X estimates the point where your muscles start to rapidly fatigueCadence — number of steps per minuteStride length — shows your stride length in real time Swim Profiles, Skiing, Paddle Sports, Golf and MoreBeyond their running functions, fenix 5 watches also offer special feature sets to help with swim training, skiing, golfing and paddle sports, including stand-up paddle boarding and rowing. For swimmers, the device tracks your distance, pace, stroke count and more. Ski/Board mode puts speed, distance, vertical drop and an automatic run counter (with Auto Pause for the lift line) and more at your fingertips. The feature set for paddle sports includes stroke count, stroke rate and even distance per stroke. Golf mode gives you yardage to the front, back and middle of the green for any single course you’ve downloaded from Garmin Connect – and also adds enhancements such as stat tracking (fairways hit, etc.), Green View, AutoShot detection and auto measure. Navigate the Great Outdoors, Your WayEach model in the fēnix 5X series provides comprehensive navigation and tracking to guide you on and off the beaten path using GPS plus ABC (altimeter, barometer and compass) sensor capabilities. The built-in altimeter provides elevation data to accurately monitor ascent and descent, while the barometer can be used to predict weather changes by showing short-term trends in air pressure. The 3-axis electronic compass keeps your bearing, whether you’re moving or not. In addition, there’s an internal gyroscope to help improve position accuracy (and battery life) in UltraTrac™ mode – as well as a thermometer to help you monitor changing weather conditions. So Many Ways to Stay ConnectedAll fēnix 5X series models can support smart notifications when paired with a compatible device. Receive emails, texts and alerts right on your watch – whether you're on the trail, on the golf course or simply away from your desk. Other connected features include automatic uploads to our Garmin Connect online fitness community, live tracking and social media sharing through our free Garmin Connect and Garmin Connect™ Mobile applications. Custom Apps and Watch FacesYou can customize your fēnix 5X watch with free downloads from our Connect IQ store. Change your watch face, add data fields or get apps and widgets for information at a glance. Garmin is continually working with top companies and developers to build partnerships that add even more value to your fēnix multisport watch. Names such as Uber, Strava, AccuWeather and many others offer apps and enhancements that let you tailor your fēnix 5X to fit your lifestyle in more ways than ever. Wear Your Personality on Your SleeveYou can also download the free Garmin Face It™ watch face app to customize your fēnix 5X with any photo from your smartphone. Just download the app, choose an image from your photo library, adjust the style for time and set it as your watch’s face. Whether it’s a scenic view from your last hike or a picture of your new puppy, with Garmin you can add personality to your watch that’s uniquely you. PACKAGE INCLUDES:fēnix 5X SapphireCharging/data cableDocumentation * PRELOADED MAPSTOPO US mappingDownload free maps for your country via third-party, for example opentopomap. 1See Garmin.com/ataccuracy2When paired with a compatible smartphone; see Garmin.com/BLE3When paired with heart rate monitor; included with some models, sold separately on others 100% GENUINE PRODUCT. Beware of counterfeit items sold on eBay. Shipping About Us Payment Policies Feedback Contact Us Packages are generally dispatched within 1 working day after receipt of payment and are shipped via EMS or FedEx with tracking. Estimated arrival time varies depending on location, however, 5-12 additional days for international delivery is expected. We will provide you with a link to track your package online. Boxes are amply sized and your items are well-protected. We only ship to the shipping address listed on PayPal. Please ensure your desired delivery address on PayPal is correct BEFORE you make a purchase. iooMobile is your one-stop source for cell phone accessories. We carry a large selection of up-to-date mobile accessories in many brands and models, and at competitive prices. iooMobile has been providing top-of-the-line items and services since 2007, simplifying the search for products that suit your needs. Discount prices, free shipping, and a streamlined ordering interface make us the obvious choice for those looking to purchase phone accessories. Look no further than our inventory! For exemplary products and customer support, shop iooMobile. Unless expressly put forward by iooMobile, no other payment forms other than PayPal are accepted. Currencies All products offered by iooMobile are in USD. Taxes Buyer is responsible for paying any governmental taxes imposed on your purchases, including, but not limited to, sales, customs, use or value-added taxes. iooMobile will automatically charge and withhold any applicable tax(es) for orders to be delivered to any jurisdictions that it deems is required. Shipping Packages are generally dispatched within 1 working day after receipt of payment and are shipped via Hong Kong Registered Air Mail or Singapore Registered Air Mail with tracking. Estimated arrival time varies depending on location, however, 7-21 additional days for international delivery is expected. Additional delays from customs may be expected for shipments to Brazil or Italy. We will provide you with a link to track your package online. Boxes are amply sized and your items are well-protected. We only ship to the shipping address listed on PayPal. Please ensure your desired delivery address on PayPal is correct BEFORE you make a purchase. About Us Currencies All products offered by iooMobile are in USD. Taxes Buyer is responsible for paying any governmental taxes imposed on your purchases, including, but not limited to, sales, customs, use or value-added taxes. iooMobile will automatically charge and withhold any applicable tax(es) for orders to be delivered to any jurisdictions that it deems is required. Payment Unless expressly put forward by iooMobile, no other payment forms other than PayPal are accepted. Policies Returned items must be unopened and in unused condition. The customer agrees to and is responsible for paying all shipping charges and incurring all fees associated with the return of merchandise purchased from iooMobile. Returns for adhesive merchandise (including but not limited to phone skins, screen protectors, and stickers) that have had their backing removed, as well as items designed for one time-use, are not accepted. iooMobile makes no refunds on shipping costs for any reason. Feedback Feedback Contact Us Contact Us Copyright © iooMobile. All rights reserved.
$
448.74
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$49.00 Shipping
Condition: New
Location: Italy
Brand: Globus
DESCRIPTION Health and Beauty at Hand, Always! Globus Premium 400 is the perfect stimulator for every need: sports, fitness and beauty, rehabilitation and pain relief . Its programs include 258 TENS and iontophoresis for the treatment of pain and diseases directly home, but with the professionalism that only Globus can guarantee . In addition, the stimulator Globus Premium 400 is capable of storing up to 10 different users with Multi-User technology: for this is the right product for the whole family ... more. Globus presents an innovative technology intended to revolutionize the electrostimulation application in beauty, sport and medical fields: 3S (Serial Sequential Stimulation) technology. “3S” SERIAL SEQUENTIAL STIMULATION: The sequential contraction of the different muscular groups produces a deep pressure wave in the musculature involved causing the interstitial fluid drainage and enhancing the return of the venous blood to the heart. It is useful also in sport field for warm-down and post-competition active recovery, especially in endurance sports such as running, cross-country, skiing, bike-riding, triathlon etc. ACTION NOW: it enables to activate the muscular contraction through an external control managed by an operator. In this way it is possible to link the stimulation to the voluntary contraction to obtain a greater recruitment of the muscular fibers and an important coordinating effect. SPECIAL SPORTS: a special program list to stimulate in an effective and specific manner the muscular areas used in the more common sport activities. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS MULTI-useR: it permits to store up to 10 different users and to create a library of personalized programs depending on individual aims. SYNCROSTIM: It is possible to increase the intensity of the 4 channels simultaneously using only one button. RUN TIME FUNCTION: this function permits to modify the time, the frequency and the pulse amplitude during the treatment. PROGRAMMABLE: 10 free memories, only for EMS and TENS. 2+2 MODE: it permits to execute two different programs simultaneously. FAVORITES: it permits to store up to 15 programs for each user. LAST 10: it stores the last 10 executed programs. WORKING TIME: It stores the total usage time of the device. MY TRAINER: it shows the electrode position on the display. STIM LOCK Look at how to position the electrodes through the videos on our YouTube channel Warranty Extension Technical Features The features! Channels: 4 independent CHANNELS Frequency: 0,3 – 150 Hz Power: 120 mA per channel Pulse amplitude: 40 – 450 μs Wave form: Square, biphasic,symmetrical and compensated wave Power supply: rechargeable battery Device in II A Class Backlit display In compliance with the directive 93/42/CEE-2007/47/CEE Programmes The programs! SPORT Capillarization Warm-up Pre-competition Warm-up Active Recovery Maximum Strength Endurance Strength Explosive Strength Aerobic Endurance Reactivity Post-Competition Recovery Decontracting Hypertrophy SPECIAL SPORTS Runner Cross-Country-Skiing Golf Martial Arts Tennis Football Bike FITNESS Firming Bio-Pulse Firming Sculpting Bio-Pulse Sculpting Toning Mass building Body Sculpting Definition Jogging Anaerobic Fitness Aerobic Fitness Cramp prevention BEAUTY Drainage Lipolysis Skin Tone Improvement Bio-Pulse Drainage Toning Massage Connective Massage Post-Pregnancy Drainage Post-Pregnancy Lipolysis Post-Pregnancy Firming Breast Firming Breast Sculpting Swollen Arms Face Capillaries Lifting Effect PAIN Conventional Antalgic Tens Menstrual pain Modulated Antalgic Tens Hand Osteoarthritis Endorphinic Tens Chronic Pain Shoulder Pain (S.H. Syndrome) Muscle Pain Chronic Lumbago Cervical Pain Bursitis-Tendinitis Osteoarthritis INCONTINENCE Mixed Incontinence Stress Incontinence URGE Incontinence IONOPHORESIS Ionophoresis REHABILITATION Quadriceps Atrophy (with knee prosthesis) Recovery after ACL surgery Shoulder Sublaxation Prevention MICROCURRENTS Epicondylitis S. H. Periarthritis Muscle Restoration Contusion Hedema Skin Ulcera Sciatica Lumbago Brachial Neuralgia Acute Pain Articular Pain Stiff Neck Whiplash Cervical Spondylosis Shoulder Sprain Carpal Tunnel Knee Sprain Knee Osteoarthritis Ankle Sprain Achille Tendon Inflammation Patella Tendon Inflammation Rotator Cuff Inflammation Tendon Inflammation SERIAL SEQUENTIAL STIMULATION 3S 18 Programs ACTION NOW 7 Programs Welcome to the Store for Wellness the Online Store where you can purchase the latest technology for Health, Beauty, Aesthetic, Fitness and more generally for your Wellness and Body Care. PAYMENT Paypal: The payment can be made conveniently and safely through your Paypal account. The payment is secure and allows us to proceed immediately with the shipment! SHIPMENT Shipments are made within 3-4 days of purchase, with Fedex courier or DHL. After shipped, we'll send you a notification with shipment tracking number. Delivery is guaranteed within 48/72 hours all over the world (some uncomfortable place, such as islands, may require 96 hours). ABOUT US Since 1981 MEG Strumentazione operates is in the field of instruments and devices for the health and welness by ensuring continue high levels of business consultancy and technical service with solutions targeted to the customer satisfaction. MEG Strumentazione is a leading distributor of different brands of medical equipment in 2010 has extended its offer in beauty and wellness by starting a business on-line through the StoreforWellness[dot]com. MEG Strumentazione is able to provide to its customers at any time, from the proposed sale to the after sales a high and reliable support. Therefore, we can claim to be able to offer our customers a real and genuine service, which was created and developed on the understanding of the real and effective customer needs. Since its foundation in 1981, thanks to our commitment, We have earned the trust of our customers, and then becoming as a matter of fact, a leading player in a growing market. Our mission is to provide innovative quality products aimed at the body care, aesthetics, wellness, fitness and more, with particular care to our customers needs, and providing favorable conditions and prices thanks to consolidated relationships with the most important sector leading partners. The persistence and dedication to the work we do, thanks to an increase in sales in recent years, allows us the continued growth of the variety of products and services offered, not to mention the reliability and outstanding accuracy that sets us apart for years. We think that buying on-line should be safe and convenient, not to mention the possibility of having a "human" contact" for any need or trouble. As a matter of fact, our operators are always at your disposal for any of your need. We select products of excellent quality, origin and manufacturing reliable and safe manufacturing and we offer them at the best price we can give. We guarantee the correct balance of quality and cost, because we know from experience that price alone is not the major factor alone We guarantee fast deliveries and secure payments. We reward your loyalty with advantageous discounts by registering safe and risk free. MEG Strumentazione S.r.l. International Division StoreforWellness Via IV Novembre 1 Vanzago 20010, Milan (Italy) Office hours: Monday - Friday: 9.00 AM - 12.00 PM / 2.00 PM - 5.00 PM SOCIAL Want to stay updated on the latest news, new arrivals and all our promotions? Follow us on our Social! You will have direct contact with us and never miss the latest news! WARRANTY All of our items are covered by a two year warranty! INVOICE All merchandise is shipped together with a fiscal document (also valid for warranty).
$
29.94
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Condition: New
Location: USA
MPN: 4020 Large 56 Chute
RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world-- these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines resistance and over-speed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina and endurance. After training with the ... morechute, your speed, explosiveness and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING RAD Sportz 56-inch Speed Training Resistance Parachute Quality Running Chute Product Description: RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world-- these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines resistance and over-speed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina and endurance. After training with the chute, your speed, explosiveness and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING FOR.. What is IncludedRAD Sportz 56-inch Running Chute and FREE Carrying Case. 56-inch diameter, 25 lbs of resistance, Fully functional unit includes parachute and belt with hook and loop fasteners closure, hook and loop fasteners Quick Release for over-speed training, Adjustable- waist sizes 20-42 inches, Quick Release Strap provides easy release into over-speed, Top Quality MaterialsLight but strong, Mesh panels eliminate the tangling of strings found on other chute models, The panels provide stability to reduce shifting, Increase Training Excitement and motivation because you can feel yourself improving and running faster, Versatility- Can be used with sports skills building drills (football etc.) or drills involving change of direction and speed, Easily folds down to fit in the free carry case that will fit in any backpack. EquipmentResistance TrainingWeight Range21 - 40 lbsExact ColorBlue Note *All retailers not collecting sales tax from purchasers in Colorado, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, and Washington are required to give the following notice: Although we, as the seller, are not obligated to collect sales tax in your state, this purchase is subject to sales tax unless it is specifically exempt from taxation. This purchase in not exempt merely because it is made over the internet or by other remote means. Your state requires that you file a tax return at the end of the year reporting all of your purchases that were not taxed and pay tax on those purchases. Retailers that do not collect Colorado, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Vermont, or Washington sales tax, including ourselves, will provide you an end-of-year summary of your purchases to assist you in filing that report. You may contact your state’s Department of Revenue for details on how to file this return. For purchasers in Colorado, Louisiana, Vermont, and Washington please note that we are required by law to provide your state with a report of the total amount of all your purchases from us at the end of the year.
$
134.97
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$15.57 Shipping
Condition: New with tags
Location: United Kingdom
MPN: 38683
Brand: Skins
The world's largest online rugby store Size Guides Delivery Returns About us View Christmas Delivery Posting Deadlines --> Skins Mens K-Proprium Compression Long Tights Pants Bottoms Training Sport Product Code: 38683 RRP: £150.00 Now: £104.00 UK Standard Delivery: FREE Add to basket > Ask a question > Product specs Group: Base Layer Type: Base Layer Type: Compression Type: Tights / Leggings All our sizes are listed in UK sizing. Product description Delivery & Returns Size Guide Power up your performance ... morelike never before, these are serious tights for serious athletes, in a eye-catching Espresso design, pull on these SKINS K-Proprium Compression Long Tights.Part of the SKINS collection, these tights are able to combine premium compression technology with the built-in Proprioceptive Power Bands to boost your bodyÔÇÖs natural proprioception. Biomechanically placed Proprioceptive Power Bands (PPB's) improve proprioception and joint stability to reduce fatigue and the risk of injury. Coupled with this the Dynamic Gradient Compression ensures compression levels are optimised for activity, providing increased support and driving more oxygen to your muscles for better performance. The ergonomically shaped waistband supports and stabilises the lower abdominals and lumbar spine and the ADAPTIVE Technology keeps you feeling warm when itÔÇÖs cold and cool and dry when itÔÇÖs hot. Finished with bonded hems that won't dig into your ankles these tights also come with a shaped crotch for comfort.Wear SKINS K-PROPRIUM Long Tights for endurance training, team and power-based sports to fight fatigue and take your performance to new heights. Shipping: We aim to pack and dispatch all our items within 24 hours of payment (Monday to Friday). Items won over the weekend will usually be dispatched on Monday. We do offer combined delivery. For the UK: the first item gets charged at full cost, and each additional item is free delivery and packaging fees. For Europe: the first item gets charged at full cost, then £3.60 for every subsequent item purchased. For Worldwide: the first item gets charged at full cost, then £6 for every subsequent item purchased. These discounts should be automatically applied by eBay invoicing system. All items must be paid for together, on the same invoice, to benefit from combined delivery and packaging discount. Returns: We accept returns if the item is returned as new with all orignal packaging as sent out. We will happily refund the full price of the item, once it has been returned and checked. Return postage is only refunded if we are at fault or the item is damaged or fault. Please inform us of any problems within 48 hours of receipt of your item using the ebay resolution centre. A return address is provided as part of this process. For assistance filing a return request please see the following ebay help page: Requesting A Return The item must be returned to us, in it's original condition, within 7 days of you receiving it. A refund will be issued within 5 working days of receipt of the returned item. Please do not contact us regarding your refund before 5 days have passed. We advise you to use recorded delivery, or a delivery service that can be tracked and traced, as parcels that do not arrive back to us cannot be refunded by us. Please contact us before leaving any negative feedback and enable us to rectify any problems with your order. If in doubt, contact us via the ebay message system before buying. Generic Running Shoes (Adults) 5 EU 39 US 6 Generic Shorts (Adults) XS S M L XL XXL 3XL cm waist 71-75 76-82 83-90 91-99 100-109 110-121 122-134 inches waist 27-29 30-32 32-35 35-39 39-43 43-47 48-53 Generic Polo Shirt (Adults) XS S M L XL XXL 3XL cm chest 82-87 88-94 95-102 103-111 112-121 122-132 133-144 cm waist 71-75 76-82 83-90 91-99 100-109 110-121 122-134 inches chest 31-33 34-37 37-40 40-44 44-48 48-52 53-58 inches waist 27-29 30-32 32-35 35-39 39-43 43-47 48-53 Generic T-Shirt (Adults) XS S M L XL XXL 3XL cm chest 82-87 88-94 95-102 103-111 112-121 122-132 133-144 cm waist 71-75 76-82 83-90 91-99 100-109 110-121 122-134 inches chest 31-33 34-37 37-40 40-44 44-48 48-52 53-58 inches waist 27-29 30-32 32-35 35-39 39-43 43-47 48-53 Generic Boots (Adults) 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 US 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 Generic Boots (Adults) 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 EU 39 40 40.5 41 42 42.5 43 44 44.5 45 45.5 46 48 48.5 About Lovell Rugby Lovell Rugby kits you out on and off the pitch with everything from rugby boots and international & club rugby shirts to protection, coaching, training, nutrition and rugby leisurewear. --> International --> Boots --> Club Teams --> Training --> Equipment --> Base Layer --> Protection --> Off Field --> Kids Keep ahead of the game with our email newsletter. 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$
12.99
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$4.99 Shipping
Condition: Used
Location: Canton,MA,USA
MPN: Excellent Condition DVD in case
Brand: FMS FITNESS MADE SIMPLE
☆BODYBUILDING DVD-UPPER BODY MUSCLE BUILD IN 1 AWESOME HOUR @ HOME-JOHN BASEDOW☆ Description In response to popular demand from FMS customers, Manta Communications has created the FMS AWESOME HOUR UPPER BODY HOME WORKOUT, an hour long video featuring Fitness Celebrity John Basedow taking you through his own upper body workout. Many customers called in wanting a program they could follow with John...Exercise by exercise... Rep by rep... All in the comfort of their own homes. You wanted it so we produced ... moreit. If you don't always have time to get to the gym now you can work out together with John and learn the secrets he uses to maintain his sculpted torso and ripped six pack of abs at home... with the inexpensive, limited set-up of free weights and an adjustable bench!!! ----- REVIEW: 5 OUT OF 5 ST*RS!!!! Truly in 1 Awesome Hour! by JordanC. - Feb 8 Format: DVD This is the first and the only dvd that really shows you how to get definition and strength working out AT HOME. All fitness regimines that teach you how to define your chest, arms, triceps, etc.... always show tons of gym equipment, or they have routines done at home that just do not produce results. The Fitness Made Simple Upper Body Workout is the only one that can be done at home and produce better results than most gym equipment can. John lays it all out for you and I loved that I understood what to do, how to do it, why I was doing it, and bottom line loved the results it gave me in just a few weeks! This is the best upper body workout I have ever done, and even though I go to a gym now just to get out of the house, I still utilize all the concepts and the same exercises because they simply are the best ones I can do to get the results that I want to achieve. I highly recommend this!!!! Product information ActorsJohn Basedow Region code - Region 1 (U.S. and Canada only) DVD SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Physical exercise From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Workout) "Workout" and "Exercise" redirect here, For other uses, see Workout (disambiguation) and Exercise (disambiguation), A man runs in water A woman does weight training Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness, It is performed for various reasons, including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and merely enjoyment, Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity,[1][2] It may also help prevent stress and depression, help to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health generally, and can augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem,[3] Childhood obesity is a growing global concern,[4] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity, Some care providers call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of benefits that it can provide for many individuals,[5][6] In the United Kingdom two to four hours of light activity are recommended during working hours,[7] This includes walking and standing,[7] Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Health effects 2,1 Cardiovascular system 2,2 Immune system 2,3 Cancer 2,4 Brain function 2,5 Sleep 2,6 Excessive exercise 3 Mechanism of effects 4 Public health measures 5 Exercise trends 6 Nutrition and recovery 7 History 8 Other animals 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Classification[edit] Indian wrestler exercising, 1973 Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[8] Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting,[8] The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance,[9] Examples of aerobic exercise include cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distance training,[8] Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and tone muscles, as well as improve bone strength, balance, and coordination,[8] Examples of strength moves are push-ups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells,[8] Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, Interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength,[8][10] Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles,[8] Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber,[8] The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury,[8][11] Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracy, agility, power, and speed,[12] Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used,[citation needed] 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow, Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise),[citation needed] Health effects[edit] A review of correlational studies suggest that physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system, Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and quality of life,[13] According to the World Health Organization, lack of physical activity contributes to approximately 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of falls in the elderly, and 10% of breast cancer and colon cancer,[14] Not everyone benefits equally from exercise, There is tremendous variation in individual response to training; where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others can never augment endurance,[15][16] However, muscle hypertrophy from resistance training is primarily determined by diet and testosterone,[17] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population,[18][19] Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life,[20] Cardiovascular system[edit] The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented, There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness,[21] There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700 to 2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations, The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active, Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age), ,,, persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival, ,,, Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality,[22] Immune system[edit] Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness, Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve, Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence, However, another study did not find the effect, Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections, The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar, Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant,[23] Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners,[23] Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects, In individuals with heart disease, exercise interventions lower blood levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, an important cardiovascular risk marker,[24] The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect,[23] Cancer[edit] A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survivorship, According to the study results "There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality",[25] Epigenetic effects[edit] Physical exercise was correlated with a lower methylation frequency of two tumor suppressor genes, CACNA2D3 and L3MBTL,[26][27] Hypermethylation of CACNA2D3 is associated with gastric cancer, while hypermethylation of L3MBTL is associated with breast cancer, brain tumors and hematological malignancies,[26][27][28][29] A recent study indicates that exercise results in reduced DNA methylation at CpG sites on genes associated with breast cancer,[30] Cancer cachexia[edit] Physical exercise is becoming a widely accepted non-pharmacological intervention for the prevention and attenuation of cancer cachexia,[31] "Cachexia is a multiorganic syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by inflammation, body weight loss (at least 5%) and muscle and adipose tissue wasting",[32] The exercise-induced transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (see PPARGC1A), which suppresses FOXO and NF-κB dependent transcription during atrophy induced by fasting or denervation, may be a key intermediate responsible for the benficial antiatrophic effects of physical exercise on cancer cachexia,[33][34] The exercise-induced isoform PGC1α4, which can repress myostatin and induce IGF1 and hypertrophy, is a potential drug target for treatment of cancer cachexia,[35] Other factors, such as JUNB and SIRT1, that maintain skeletal muscle mass and promote hypertrophy are also induced with regular physical exercise,[36][37] Brain function[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise The following text needs to be harmonized with text in Neurobiological effects of physical exercise, (February 2015) Physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases,[38] Evidence suggests that it reduces the risk of developing dementia,[39] The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 30 years and examined the association between regular physical exercise and dementia, The study found that men who exercised regularly had a 59% reduction in dementia when compared to the men who didn't exercise,[40] In addition, a 2008 review of cognitive enrichment therapies (strategies to slow or reverse cognitive decline) concluded that "physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function",[41] In mice, exercise improves cognitive functioning via improvement of spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis,[42] In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it, Then, over the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists, They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory, Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial, But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response,[43] The mice who were forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes in only one area, According to an author of the study, "our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions,"[44] Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage,[45] There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain, Examples are as follows: increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain; increasing growth factors that help neurogenesis,[46] and promote synaptic plasticity[47] — possibly improving short and long term memory; increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin,[48] Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells,[49] Depression[edit] Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Antidepressant effect and Exercise-induced euphoria Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has pronounced long-term antidepressant effects[50][51][52][53] and can produce euphoria in the short-term,[54][55][56] Numerous systematic reviews suggest that regular aerobic exercise (at sufficient intensity and duration) has comparable antidepressant efficacy to standard pharmaceutical antidepressants in treating depression,[50][51][52][53] Consequently, current medical evidence supports the use of aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression,[50][51][52][53] The biomolecular basis for exercise-induced antidepressant effects is believed to be a result of increased neurotrophic factor signaling, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor,[51][57] Continuous exercise can produce short-term euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[54] β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[55] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog),[56][58][59] Other types of physical exercise have also been shown to help depression, An increasing issue, prenatal depression, has become more common among pregnant women, and has a negative effect on the mother as well as the developing fetus, Exercise, specifically yoga, has been shown to alleviate this type of depression,[60] In contrast, there is moderate evidence to suggest that engaging in sedentary behavior is linked to an increase in anxiety, However, additional research is needed in order to successfully measure anxiety alone, because of the close relationship it has with depression,[61] Sleep[edit] A 2010 review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia, The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep, There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep,[62] According to a 2005 study, exercise is the most recommended alternative to sleeping pills for resolving insomnia, Sleeping pills are more costly than to make time for a daily routine of staying fit, and may have dangerous side effects in the long run, Exercise can be a healthy, safe and inexpensive way to achieve more and better sleep,[63] Excessive exercise[edit] Too much exercise can be harmful, Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[64] and muscle tissue may develop slowly, Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities,[65][66][67] Specifically, high cardiac output has been shown to cause enlargement of the left and right ventricle volumes, increased ventricle wall thickness, and greater cardiac mass, These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls, During these processes, the protein troponin increases in the bloodstream, indicating cardiac muscle cell death and increased stress on the heart itself,[68] Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of “inappropriateâ€� varying according to the individual, For many activities, especially running and cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules, Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern,[69] whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern,[70][71] In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss, Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits,[72] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts, One sign of Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is suppressed immune function, with an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), An increased incidence of URTIs is also associated with high volume/intensity training, as well as with excessive exercise (EE), such as in a marathon,[73] Stopping excessive exercise suddenly may create a change in mood, Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations, While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging, This must be determined for each individual, Too much exercise may cause a woman to miss her periods, a symptom known as amenorrhea,[74] This is a very serious condition which indicates a woman is pushing her body beyond its natural boundaries,[75] Mechanism of effects[edit] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[76] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol, which causes many health problems, both physical and mental,[77] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals,[78] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 Max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality,[79] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training), Ventricular hypertrophy, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response to exercise, Public health measures[edit] Exercise in space: Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, works out at the Unity node of the International Space Station using the short bar of the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform pull-ups to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment Multiple component community-wide campaigns are frequently used in an attempt to increase a population's level of physical activity, A 2015 Cochrane review, however, did not find evidence supporting a benefit,[80] The quality of the underlying evidence was also poor,[80] Survery of brief interventions promoting physical activity found that they are cost-effective, although there are variations between studies,[81] Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels,[82] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise, These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity,[83] To identify which public health strategies are effective, a Cochrane overview of reviews is in preparation,[84] Physical exercise was said to decrease healthcare costs, increase the rate of job attendance, as well as increase the amount of effort women put into their jobs,[85] Children will mimic the behavior of their parents in relation to physical exercise, Parents can thus promote physical activity and limit the amount of time children spend in front of screens which may decrease the risk of childhood obesity,[86] Exercise trends[edit] Main article: Exercise trends Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[87] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits,[87] Personal lifestyle changes however can correct the lack of physical exercise, Research in 2015 indicates integrating mindfulness to physical exercise interventions increases exercise adherence, self-efficacy and also has positive effects both psychologically and physiologically,[88] Nutrition and recovery[edit] Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise, When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise,[89] History[edit] The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity, Marcus Cicero, around 65 BCE, stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor,"[90] Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century to realise the benefits of exercise, The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack that had 166,000 members in 1937,[91] However, the link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was only discovered in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris,[92][93] Dr, Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease,[93] This link had not previously been noted and was later confirmed by other researchers, Other animals[edit] Physical exercise has been shown to benefit a wide range of other mammals, as well as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird,[94] However, several studies have shown that lizards display no benefit from exercise, leading them to be termed "metabolically inflexible",[95] A number of studies of both rodents and humans have demonstrated that individual differences in both ability and propensity for exercise (i,e,, voluntary exercise) have some genetic basis,[96][97] See also[edit] Portal icon Health and fitness portal Portal icon Medicine portal Portal icon Society portal Portal icon Sports portal Main article: Outline of exercise Active living Behavioural change theories Exercise hypertension Exercise-induced nausea Exercise intensity Exercise intolerance Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Exercise-induced asthma Kinesiology Metabolic equivalent Supercompensation Physical fitness References[edit] Jump up ^ Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC; Hu; Manson; Rimm; Willett (2000), "Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women through Diet and Lifestyle", New England Journal of Medicine 343 (1): 16–22, doi:10,1056/NEJM200007063430103, PMID 10882764, Jump up ^ Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC; Manson; Stampfer; Colditz; Liu; 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PMC: 3857242, PMID 24349147, Jump up ^ Hertzog C, Kramer AF, Wilson S, Lindenberger U, (2008), "Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be" (PDF), Psychological Science in the Public Interest 9 (1): 1–65, doi:10,1111/j,1539-6053,2009,01034,x, Retrieved 2009-07-07, Jump up ^ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH; Kempermann; Gage (1999), "Ontogeny Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus", Nature Neuroscience (Abstract) 2 (3): 266–70, doi:10,1038/6368, PMID 10195220, Jump up ^ Liu Yu-Fan, Chen Hsuin-ing, Wul Chao-Liang, Kuol Yu-Min, Yu Lung, Huang A-Min, Wu Fong-Sen, Chuang Jih-Ing, Jen Chauying J,; et al, (2009), "Differential effects of treadmill running and wheel running on spatial or aversive learning and memory: Roles of amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptotagmin I,", Journal of Physiology 587 (13): 3221–3231, doi:10,1113/jphysiol,2009,173088, Jump up ^ Gretchen Reynolds (16 September 2009), "Phys Ed: What Sort of Exercise Can Make You Smarter?", New York Times, Jump up ^ Could Exercise Regenerate Alcohol-Damaged Neurons? - Levin 41 (23): 20 - Psychiatr News Jump up ^ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH (March 1999), "Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus", Nat, Neurosci, 2 (3): 266–70, doi:10,1038/6368, PMID 10195220, Jump up ^ Hunsberger JG, Newton SS, Bennett AH, Duman CH, Russell DS, Salton SR, Duman RS (2007), "Antidepressant actions of the exercise-regulated gene VGF", Nat, Med, 13 (12): 1476–82, doi:10,1038/nm1669, PMID 18059283, Jump up ^ Parker-Pope, T, (2001), For a Healthy Brain You Really Need to Use Your Head -- Physical and Mental Exercise Can Stave Off Mental Decline, The Wall Street Journal November 26, 2001 Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database, Jump up ^ Edward McAuley,* Arthur F, Kramer, and Stanley J, Colcombe, E; Kramer, Arthur F; Colcombe, Stanley J (2004), "Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review" (PDF), BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, and IMMUNITY, 18 (2004): 214–220, doi:10,1016/j,bbi,2003,12,007, Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16, Retrieved 2007-03-28, ^ Jump up to: a b c Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE (2013), "Exercise for depression", Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9: CD004366, doi:10,1002/14651858,CD004366,pub6, PMID 24026850, Exercise is moderately more effective than a control intervention for reducing symptoms of depression, but analysis of methodologically robust trials only shows a smaller effect in favour of exercise, When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion is based on a few small trials, ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mura G, Moro MF, Patten SB, Carta MG (2014), "Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review", CNS Spectr 19 (6): 496–508, doi:10,1017/S1092852913000953, PMID 24589012, Considered overall, the studies included in the present review showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants, ,,, Conclusions This is the first review to have focused on exercise as an add-on strategy in the treatment of MDD, Our findings corroborate some previous observations that were based on few studies and which were difficult to generalize,41,51,73,92,93 Given the results of the present article, it seems that exercise might be an effective strategy to enhance the antidepressant effect of medication treatments, Moreover, we hypothesize that the main role of exercise on treatment-resistant depression is in inducing neurogenesis by increasing BDNF expression, as was demonstrated by several recent studies, ^ Jump up to: a b c Josefsson T, Lindwall M, Archer T (2014), "Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: meta-analysis and systematic review", Scand J Med Sci Sports 24 (2): 259–272, doi:10,1111/sms,12050, PMID 23362828, Physical activity has also become increasingly and firmly associated with improvements in mental health and psychological well-being (Mutrie, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007), In particular, exercise is believed to be effective in preventing depression and also to significantly reduce depressive symptoms in clinical as well as in nonclinical populations (O'Neal et al,, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007), Several correlational studies show that exercise is negatively related to depressive symptoms (e,g,, Galper et al,, 2006; Hassmén et al,, 2000), Moreover, a considerably large number of intervention studies have by now investigated the effect of various exercise programs on depression and the vast majority of them indicate that exercise significantly reduces depression (e,g,, Blumenthal et al,, 2007; Martinsen et al,, 1985; Singh et al,, 1997), ,,, To date, it is not possible to determine exactly how effective exercise is in reducing depression symptoms in clinical and nonclinical depressed populations, respectively, However, the results from the present meta-analysis as well as from seven earlier meta-analyses (North et al,, 1990; Craft & Landers, 1998; Lawlor & Hopker, 2001; Stathopoulou et al,, 2006; Mead et al,, 2009; Rethorst et al,, 2009; Krogh et al,, 2011) indicate that exercise has a moderate to large antidepressant effect, Some meta-analytic results (e,g,, Rethorst et al,, 2009) suggest that exercise may be even more efficacious for clinically depressed people, ,,, In short, our final conclusion is that exercise may well be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program, ^ Jump up to: a b c Rosenbaum S, Tiedemann A, Sherrington C, Curtis J, Ward PB (2014), "Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis", J Clin Psychiatry 75 (9): 964–974, doi:10,4088/JCP,13r08765, PMID 24813261, This systematic review and meta-analysis found that physical activity reduced depressive symptoms among people with a psychiatric illness, The current meta-analysis differs from previous studies, as it included participants with depressive symptoms with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses (except dysthymia and eating disorders), ,,, This review provides strong evidence for the antidepressant effect of physical activity; however, the optimal exercise modality, volume, and intensity remain to be determined, ,,, Conclusion Few interventions exist whereby patients can hope to achieve improvements in both psychiatric symptoms and physical health simultaneously without significant risks of adverse effects, Physical activity offers substantial promise for improving outcomes for people living with mental illness, and the inclusion of physical activity and exercise programs within treatment facilities is warranted given the results of this review, ^ Jump up to: a b Tantimonaco M, Ceci R, Sabatini S, Catani MV, Rossi A, Gasperi V, Maccarrone M (2014), "Physical activity and the endocannabinoid system: an overview", Cell, Mol, Life Sci, 71 (14): 2681–2698, doi:10,1007/s00018-014-1575-6, PMID 24526057, The traditional view that PA engages the monoaminergic and endorphinergic systems has been challenged by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), composed of endogenous lipids, their target receptors, and metabolic enzymes, Indeed, direct and indirect evidence suggests that the ECS might mediate some of the PA-triggered effects throughout the body, ,,, the evidence that PA induces some of the psychotropic effects elicited by the Cannabis sativa active ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, Fig, 1), like bliss, euphoria, and peacefulness, strengthened the hypothesis that endocannabinoids (eCBs) might mediate, at least in part, the central and peripheral effects of exercise [14], ,,, To our knowledge, the first experimental study aimed at investigating the influence of PA on ECS in humans was carried out in 2003 by Sparling and coworkers [63], who showed increased plasma AEA content after 45 min of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer, Since then, other human studies have shown increased blood concentrations of AEA ,,, A dependence of the increase of AEA concentration on exercise intensity has also been documented, Plasma levels of AEA significantly increased upon 30 min of moderate exercise (heart rate of 72 and 83 %), but not at lower and significantly higher exercise intensities, where the age-adjusted maximal heart rate was 44 and 92 %, respectively ,,, Several experimental data support the hypothesis that ECS might, at least in part, explain PA effects on brain functions, because: (1) CB1 is the most abundant GPCR in the brain participating in neuronal plasticity [18]; (2) eCBs are involved in several brain responses that greatly overlap with the positive effects of exercise; (3) eCBs are able to cross the blood–brain barrier [95]; and (4) exercise increases eCB plasma levels [64–67], ^ Jump up to: a b Dinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD (2011), "Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression", Ir J Med Sci 180 (2): 319–325, doi:10,1007/s11845-010-0633-9, PMID 21076975, According to the 'endorphins hypothesis', exercise augments the secretion of endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, reducing pain and causing general euphoria, ,,, Based upon a large effect size, the results confirmed the endorphins hypothesis demonstrating that exercise leads to an increased secretion of endorphins which, in turn, improved mood states, β-Endorphin, an endogenous μ-opioid receptor selective ligand, has received much attention in the literature linking endorphins and depression or mood states, ,,, exercise of sufficient intensity and duration can increase circulating β-endorphin levels, ,,, Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that exercise and physical activity increased β-endorphin levels in plasma with positive effects on mood, Interestingly, the researchers reported that, independently of sex and age, dynamic anaerobic exercises increased β-endorphin, while resistance and aerobic exercises seem to only have small effects on β-endorphins, ,,, The results showed that mood tends to be higher in a day an individual exercises as well as that daily activity and exercise overall are strongly linked with mood states, In line with these findings, a recent study showed that exercise significantly improved mood states in non-exercises, recreational exercisers, as well as marathon runners, More importantly, the effects of exercise on mood were twofold in recreational exercisers and marathon runners, ^ Jump up to: a b Szabo A, Billett E, Turner J (2001), "Phenylethylamine, a possible link to the antidepressant effects of exercise?", Br J Sports Med 35 (5): 342–343, doi:10,1136/bjsm,35,5,342, PMC: 1724404, PMID 11579070, The 24 hour mean urinary concentration of phenylacetic acid was increased by 77% after exercise, ,,, These results show substantial increases in urinary phenylacetic acid levels 24 hours after moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise, As phenylacetic acid reflects phenylethylamine levels3 , and the latter has antidepressant effects, the antidepressant effects of exercise appear to be linked to increased phenylethylamine concentrations, Furthermore, considering the structural and pharmacological analogy between amphetamines and phenylethylamine, it is conceivable that phenylethylamine plays a role in the commonly reported "runners high" thought to be linked to cerebral β-endorphin activity, The substantial increase in phenylacetic acid excretion in this study implies that phenylethylamine levels are affected by exercise, ,,, A 30 minute bout of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise increases phenylacetic acid levels in healthy regularly exercising men, The findings may be linked to the antidepressant effects of exercise, Jump up ^ Erickson KI, Miller DL, Roecklein KA (2012), "The aging hippocampus: interactions between exercise, depression, and BDNF", Neuroscientist 18 (1): 82–97, doi:10,1177/1073858410397054, PMC: 3575139, PMID 21531985, Late adulthood is associated with increased hippocampal atrophy and dysfunction, ,,, However, there is strong evidence that decreased BDNF is associated with age-related hippocampal dysfunction, memory impairment, and increased risk for depression, whereas increasing BDNF by aerobic exercise appears to ameliorate hippocampal atrophy, improve memory function, and reduce depression, ,,, For example, longitudinal studies have reported between 1% and 2% annual hippocampal atrophy in adults older than 55 years without dementia ,,, Over a nine-year period, greater amounts of physical activity in the form of walking are associated with greater gray matter volume in several regions including prefrontal, temporal, and hippocampal areas, ,,, The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus deteriorate in late adulthood, preceding and leading to deficits in executive and memory function, We examined in this review the evidence that age-related changes in BDNF might at least partially explain hippocampal atrophy and increased risk for memory impairment, We can conclude that 1) decreases in BDNF protein expression are associated with poorer hippocampal function and increased rates of geriatric depression and AD, ,,, 3) Aerobic exercise enhances executive and memory function and reduces hippocampal atrophy in late adulthood, and this may be partially mediated through a BDNF pathway, Jump up ^ Lindemann L, Hoener MC (2005), "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family", Trends Pharmacol, Sci, 26 (5): 274–281, doi:10,1016/j,tips,2005,03,007, PMID 15860375, The pharmacology of TAs might also contribute to a molecular understanding of the well-recognized antidepressant effect of physical exercise [51], In addition to the various beneficial effects for brain function mainly attributed to an upregulation of peptide growth factors [52,53], exercise induces a rapidly enhanced excretion of the main β-PEA metabolite β-phenylacetic acid (b-PAA) by on average 77%, compared with resting control subjects [54], which mirrors increased β-PEA synthesis in view of its limited endogenous pool half-life of ~30 s [18,55], Jump up ^ Berry MD (2007), "The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases", Rev Recent Clin Trials 2 (1): 3–19, doi:10,2174/157488707779318107, PMID 18473983, It has also been suggested that the antidepressant effects of exercise are due to an exercise-induced elevation of PE [151], Jump up ^ Gong, Hong; Ni, Chenxu; Shen, Xiaoliang; Wu, Tengyun; Jiang, Chunlei (2015-02-05), "Yoga for prenatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis", BMC Psychiatry 15 (1), doi:10,1186/s12888-015-0393-1, PMC: 4323231, PMID 25652267, Jump up ^ Teychenne, Megan; Costigan, Sarah A; Parker, Kate (2015-06-19), "The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review", BMC Public Health 15 (1), doi:10,1186/s12889-015-1843-x, PMC: 4474345, PMID 26088005, Jump up ^ Buman, M,P,, King, A,C, (2010), "Exercise as a Treatment to Enhance Sleep", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 31 (5): 514, doi:10,1177/1559827610375532, Jump up ^ Youngstedt, S,D, (April 2005), "Effects of exercise on sleep" (PDF), Clin Sports Med, 24 (2): 355–65, xi, doi:10,1016/j,csm,2004,12,003, Retrieved 9 April 2012, Jump up ^ Alexander, C, 1998, Cutting weight, losing life, News & Observer, February 8: 1998, A,1, Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database, Jump up ^ Möhlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F, Bröcker-Preuss M, Nassenstein K, Halle M, Budde T, Mann K, Barkhausen J, Heusch G, Jöckel KH, Erbel R (200), "Running: the risk of coronary events : Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners", Eur, Heart J, 29 (15): 1903–10, doi:10,1093/eurheartj/ehn163, PMID 18426850, Jump up ^ Benito B, Gay-Jordi G, Serrano-Mollar A, Guasch E, Shi Y, Tardif JC, Brugada J, Nattel S, Mont L (2011), "Cardiac arrhythmogenic remodeling in a rat model of long-term intensive exercise training", Circulation 123 (1): 13–22, doi:10,1161/CIRCULATIONAHA,110,938282, PMID 21173356, Jump up ^ Wilson M, O'Hanlon R, Prasad S, Deighan A, Macmillan P, Oxborough D, Godfrey R, Smith G, Maceira A, Sharma S, George K, Whyte G (2011), "Diverse patterns of myocardial fibrosis in lifelong, veteran endurance athletes", J Appl Physiol 110 (6): 1622–6, doi:10,1152/japplphysiol,01280,2010, PMC: 3119133, PMID 21330616, Jump up ^ O'Keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA (2012), "Potential Adverse Cardiovascular Effects from Excessive Endurance Exercise", Mayo Clinic Proceedings 87 (6): 587–595, doi:10,1016/j,mayocp,2012,04,005, Jump up ^ Aertsens J, de Geus B, Vandenbulcke G, Degraeuwe B, Broekx S, De Nocker L, Liekens I, Mayeres I, Meeusen R, Thomas I, Torfs R, Willems H, Int Panis L (2010), "Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents", Accident Analysis and Prevention 42 (6): 2149–2157, doi:10,1016/j,aap,2010,07,008, PMID 20728675, Jump up ^ Int Panis, L; De Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, GréGory; Willems, Hanny; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bleux, Nico; Mishra, Vinit; Thomas, Isabelle; Meeusen, Romain (2010), "Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers", Atmospheric Environment 44 (19): 2263–2270, doi:10,1016/j,atmosenv,2010,04,028, Jump up ^ Jacobs L, Nawrot TS, de Geus B, Meeusen R, Degraeuwe B, Bernard A, Sughis M, Nemery B, Panis LI (Oct 2010), "Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution", Environmental Health 9 (64): 64, doi:10,1186/1476-069X-9-64, PMC: 2984475, PMID 20973949, Jump up ^ Jimenez C,, Pacheco E,, Moreno A,, Carpenter A, (1996), "A Soldier's Neck and Shoulder Pain", The Physician and Sportsmedicine 24 (6): 81–82, doi:10,3810/psm,1996,06,1384, Jump up ^ Smith L,L, (2003), "Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity, 2003,", Sports Medicine 33 (5): 347–364, doi:10,2165/00007256-200333050-00002, Jump up ^ Furia, John, "The Female Athlete Triad", Medscape,com, Jump up ^ http://www,listfitness,com/exercise-excessively-addiction/ Jump up ^ Pedersen, BK (July 2013), "Muscle as a secretory organ,", Comprehensive Physiology 3 (3): 1337–62, doi:10,1002/cphy,c120033, PMID 23897689, Jump up ^ Cohen S, Williamson GM; Williamson (1991), "Stress and infectious disease in humans", Psychological Bulletin 109 (1): 5–24, doi:10,1037/0033-2909,109,1,5, PMID 2006229, Jump up ^ Borer KT, Wuorinen EC, Lukos JR, Denver JW, Porges SW, Burant CF; Wuorinen; Lukos; Denver; Porges; Burant (August 2009), "Two bouts of exercise before meals but not after meals, lower fasting blood glucose", Medicine in Science and Sports and Exercise 41 (8): 1606–14, doi:10,1249/MSS,0b013e31819dfe14, PMID 19568199, Jump up ^ Wisløff U, Ellingsen Ø, Kemi OJ; Ellingsen; Kemi (July 2009), "High=Intensity Interval Training to Maximize Cardiac Benefit of Exercise Taining?", Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 37 (3): 139–146, doi:10,1097/JES,0b013e3181aa65fc, PMID 19550205, ^ Jump up to: a b Baker, Philip R, A,; Francis, Daniel P,; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L,; Foster, Charles (2015-01-01), "Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity", The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: CD008366, doi:10,1002/14651858,CD008366,pub3, ISSN 1469-493X, PMID 25556970, Jump up ^ Gc, V; Wilson, EC; Suhrcke, M; Hardeman, W; Sutton, S; VBI Programme, Team (April 2016), "Are brief interventions to increase physical activity cost-effective? A systematic review,", British journal of sports medicine 50 (7): 408–17, PMID 26438429, Jump up ^ Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howze EH, Powell KE, Stone EJ, Rajab MW, Corso P (May 2002), "The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity, A systematic review", Am J Prev Med 22 (4 Suppl): 73–107, doi:10,1016/S0749-3797(02)00434-8, PMID 11985936, Jump up ^ Durán, Víctor Hugo, "Stopping the rising tide of chronic diseases Everyone's Epidemic", Pan American Health Organization, paho,org, Retrieved January 10, 2009, Jump up ^ Baker, Philip RA; Dobbins, Maureen; Soares, Jesus; Francis, Daniel P; Weightman, Alison L; Costello, Joseph T (2015-01-06), Public health interventions for increasing physical activity in children, adolescents and adults: an overview of systematic reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, doi:10,1002/14651858,cd011454, ISSN 1465-1858, Jump up ^ Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Cole, Christie A; Fodor, J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Tulloch, Heather E; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D (2014-12-19), "Workplace physical activity interventions and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity levels among working-age women: a systematic review protocol", Systematic Reviews 3 (1), doi:10,1186/2046-4053-3-147, PMC: 4290810, PMID 25526769, Jump up ^ Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris (2015-03-19), "Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review", Journal of Obesity 2015: 1–23, doi:10,1155/2015/546925, PMC: 4383435, PMID 25874123, ^ Jump up to: a b "WHO: Obesity and overweight", World Health Organization, Archived from the original on December 18, 2008, Retrieved January 10, 2009, Jump up ^ Kennedy AB, Resnick PB (May 2015), "Mindfulness and Physical Activity", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 9: 3221–223, doi:10,1177/1559827614564546, Jump up ^ Kimber N,, Heigenhauser G,, Spriet L,, Dyck D, (2003), "Skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism during recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise in humans", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 548 (3): 919–927, doi:10,1113/jphysiol,2002,031179, Jump up ^ "Quotes About Exercise Top 10 List", Jump up ^ "The Fitness League History", The Fitness League, Archived from the original on July 29, 2009, Retrieved 8 April 2015, Jump up ^ Kuper, Simon (11 September 2009), "The man who invented exercise", Financial Times, Retrieved 12 September 2009, ^ Jump up to: a b Morris JN, Heady JA, Raffle PA, Roberts CG, Parks JW (1953), "Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work", Lancet 265 (6795): 1053–7, doi:10,1016/S0140-6736(53)90665-5, PMID 13110049, Jump up ^ Owerkowicz T, Baudinette RV (2008), "Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus)", Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 150 (2): 211–6, doi:10,1016/j,cbpa,2008,04,594, PMID 18504156, Jump up ^ Garland T, Else PL, Hulbert AJ, Tap P (1987), "Effects of endurance training and captivity on activity metabolism of lizards", Am, J, Physiol, 252 (3 Pt 2): R450–6, PMID 3826409, Jump up ^ Garland T, Schutz H, Chappell MA, Keeney BK, Meek TH, Copes LE, Acosta W, Drenowatz C, Maciel RC, van Dijk G, Kotz CM, Eisenmann JC (2011), "The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives", J, Exp, Biol, 214 (Pt 2): 206–29, doi:10,1242/jeb,048397, PMC: 3008631, PMID 21177942, Jump up ^ Kelly SA, Pomp D (June 2013), "Genetic determinants of voluntary exercise", Trends Genet, 29 (6): 348–57, doi:10,1016/j,tig,2012,12,007, PMC: 3665695, PMID 23351966, Further reading[edit] Donatelle, Rebecca J, (2005), Health, The Basics (6th ed,), San Francisco: Pearson Education, ISBN 0-8053-2852-1, Hardman A, Stensel D (2009), Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-42198-0, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, Paffenbarger RS; Haskell; Leon; Jacobs Jr; Montoye; Sallis; Paffenbarger Jr (1993), "Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25 (1): 71–80, doi:10,1249/00005768-199301000-00011, PMID 8292105, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, O'Brien WL, Bassett DR, Schmitz KH, Emplaincourt PO, Jacobs DR, Leon AS; Haskell; Whitt; Irwin; Swartz; Strath; O'Brien; Bassett Jr; Schmitz; Emplaincourt; Jacobs Jr; Leon (2000), "Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities", Med Sci Sports Exerc 32 (9 Suppl): S498–504, doi:10,1097/00005768-200009001-00009, PMID 10993420, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS; Haskell; Herrmann; Meckes; Bassett Jr; Tudor-Locke; Greer; Vezina; Whitt-Glover; Leon (2011), "2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values", Med Sci Sports Exerc 43 (8): 1575–81, doi:10,1249/MSS,0b013e31821ece12, PMID 21681120, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett Jr DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS, The Compendium of Physical Activities Tracking Guide, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing & Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Retrieved [date] from the World Wide Web, https://sites,google,com/site/compendiumofphysicalactivities/ External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Exercise Look up exercise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary, Media related to Fitness training at Wikimedia Commons MedLinePlus's Topic on Exercise and Physical Fitness Science Daily's reference on Physical Exercise Guidance on the promotion and creation of physical environments that support increased levels of physical activity,"Physical activity and the environment", [hide] v t e Physical exercise Types Aerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise Stretching Walking Jogging Yoga Swimming Strength training Bodyweight exercise Weight training Sport See also Category:Physical exercise Exercise equipment Exercise physiology Neurobiological effects of physical exercise Categories: Physical exerciseSelf care --------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Physical fitness From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources, Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can, Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed, (December 2014) Rod of Asclepius2,svg Physical fitness can be achieved through exercise, Photo shows Rich Froning Jr, – four-time winner of "Fittest Man on Earth" title, Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities, Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous Physical exercise, physical activity,[2] and sufficient rest,[3] Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue, However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations,[4] Contents [hide] 1 Fitness 2 Activity guidelines 3 Training 3,1 High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) 3,2 Cardiovascular training 4 Effects 4,1 Controlling blood pressure 4,2 Cancer prevention 4,3 Inflammation 4,4 Immune system 4,5 Cardiovascular disease prevention 4,6 Weight control 4,7 Neuropsychological effects 4,8 Menopause and physical fitness 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Fitness[edit] Fitness is defined[by whom?] as the quality of being suitable to perform a particular task, Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten,[5] Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations, This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries, Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to personnel who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i,e, strength or endurance, A holistic definition of fitness is described by Greg Glassman in the CrossFit journal as an increased work capacity across broad times and modal domains; mastery of several attributes of fitness including strength, endurance, power, speed, balance and coordination and being able to improve the amount of work done in a given time with any of these domains,[6] A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training, A woman performs plank exercise for strengthening of muscles A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills,[7] and on age-[8] or health-related needs such as bone health,[9] Many sources[10] also cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness, This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness, Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging,[11] Working out can also help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals,[12] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[13] Activity guidelines[edit] The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, This publication suggests that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically, For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes (two hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably, it should be spread throughout the week, For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity, Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount, Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits,[14] Training[edit] Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service, Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports, Examples are: 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training, Middle distance running: athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training, The hard working muscles are at their peak for a longer period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time,[15] Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum, Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job,[16] Members of armed forces will often be required to pass a formal fitness test – for example soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT),[17] Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles, The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races, Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete, This is because sand collapses beneath the foot softening the landing, Sand training is an effective way to lose weight and become fit as its proven you need more effort (one and a half times more) to run on the soft sand than on a hard surface,[18] Aquajogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones, The water supplies minimal impact[clarification needed] to muscles and bones which is good for those recovering from injury, Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise (the deeper you are the greater the force needed to pull your leg through),[19] Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U,S, military base, 2011 Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer's start,[20] In order for physical fitness to benefit the health of an individual, an unknown response in the person called a stimulus will be triggered by the exertion, When exercise is performed with the correct amount of intensity, duration and frequency, a significant amount of improvement can occur, The person may overall feel better but the physical effects on the human body take weeks or months to notice and possibly years for full development, For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue, To continue improvements, this demand must eventually increase little over an extended period of time, This sort of exercise training has three basic principles: overload, specificity, and progression, These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity,[21] High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)[edit] High Intensity Interval Training consists of repeated, short bursts of exercise, completed at a high level of intensity, These sets of intense activity are followed by a predetermined time of rest or low intensity activity,[22] Studies have shown that exercising at a higher intensity has increased cardiac benefits for humans, compared to when exercising at a low or moderate level,[23] When your workout consists of an HIIT session, your body has to work harder to replace the oxygen it lost, Research into the benefits of HIIT have revealed that it can be very successful for reducing fat, especially around the abdominal region, Furthermore, when compared to continuous moderate exercise, HIIT proves to burn more calories and increase the amount of fat burned post- HIIT session,[24] Lack of time is one of the main reasons stated for not exercising; HIIT is a great alternative for those people because the duration of an HIIT session can be as short as 10 minutes, making it much quicker than conventional workouts,[25] Cardiovascular training[edit] This section does not cite any sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (December 2014) Cardiovascular capacity can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize,[26] Cardiorespiratory training involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption, This form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person, Also, it helps increase stamina, Examples are: Jogging – Running at a steady and gentle pace, This form of exercise is great for maintaining weight, Elliptical Training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints, This form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips, knees and ankles, Walking – Moving at a fairly regular pace for a short, medium or long distance, Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offers a numerous amount of different workout plans, One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between running and walking, Typically warm up first by walking and then switch off between walking for three minutes and running for three minutes, Swimming – Using the arms and legs to keep oneself afloat and moving either forwards or backwards, This is a good full body exercise for those who are looking to strengthen their core while improving cardiovascular endurance, Cycling – Riding a bicycle typically involves longer distances than walking or jogging, This is another low stress exercise on the joints and is great for improving leg strength,[27] Effects[edit] Controlling blood pressure[edit] Physical fitness has proven to result in positive effects on the body's blood pressure because staying active and exercising regularly builds up a stronger heart, The heart is the main organ in charge of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, Engaging in a physical activity will create a rise in blood pressure, once the activity is stopped, however, the individual’s blood pressure will return to normal, The more physical activity that one engages in, the easier this process becomes, resulting in a more ‘fit’ individual,[28] Through regular physical fitness, the heart does not have to work as hard to create a rise in blood pressure, which lowers the force on the arteries, and lowers the over all blood pressure,[29] Cancer prevention[edit] Centers for disease control and prevention provide lifestyle guidelines of maintaining a balanced diet and engaging in physical activity to reduce the risk of disease, The WCRF/ American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published a list of recommendations that reflect the evidence they have found through consistency in fitness and dietary factors that directly relate to Cancer prevention, The WCRF/AICR recommendations include the following: "Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight Each week, adults should engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity Children should engage in at least one hour of moderate or vigorous physical activity each week Be physically active for at least thirty minutes every day Avoid sugar, limit the consumption of energy packed foods Balance your diet with a variety of vegetables, grains, fruits, legumes, etc, Limit sodium intake, the consumption of red meats and the consumption of processed meats Limit alcoholic drinks to two for men and one for women a day"[30] These recommendations are also widely supported by the American Cancer Society, The guidelines have been evaluated and individuals that have higher guideline adherence scores substantially reduce cancer risk as well as help towards control with a multitude of chronic health problems, Regular physical activity is a factor that helps reduce an individual’s blood pressure and improves cholesterol levels, two key components that correlate with heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes,[31] The American Cancer Society encourages the public to "adopt a physically active lifestyle" by meeting the criteria in a variety of physical activities such as hiking, swimming, circuit training, resistance raining, lifting, etc, It is understood that cancer is not a disease that can be cured by physical fitness alone, however because it is a multifactorial disease, physical fitness is a controllable prevention, The large associations tied with being physically fit and reduced cancer risk are enough to provide a strategy to reduce cancer risk,[30] The American Cancer Society assorts different levels of activity ranging from moderate to vigorous to clarify the recommended time spent on a physical activity, These classifications of physical activity consider the intentional exercise and basic activities done on a daily basis and give the public a greater understanding by what fitness levels suffice as future disease prevention, Inflammation[edit] Studies have shown an association between increased physical activity and reduced inflammation,[32] It produces both a short-term inflammatory response and a long-term anti-inflammatory effect,[33] Physical activity reduces inflammation in conjunction with or independent of changes in body weight,[34] However, the mechanisms linking physical activity to inflammation are unknown, Immune system[edit] Physical activity boosts the immune system, This is dependent on the concentration of endogenous factors (such as sex hormones, metabolic hormones and growth hormones), body temperature, blood flow, hydration status and body position,[35] Physical activity has shown to increase the levels of natural killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, complements, cytokines, antibodies and T cytotoxic cells,[36][37] However, the mechanism linking physical activity to immune system is not fully understood, Cardiovascular disease prevention[edit] Physical activity affects one’s blood pressure, cholesterol levels, blood lipid levels, blood clotting factors and the strength of blood vessels, All factors that directly correlate to cardiovascular disease, It also improves the body’s use of insulin, People who are at risk for diabetes, Type 2 (insulin resistant) especially, benefit greatly from physical activity because it activates a better usage of insulin and protects the heart, Those who develop diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, In a study where a sample of around ten thousand adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, physical activity and metabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia were assessed, The study adjusted basic confounders with moderate/vigorous physical activity and the relation with CVD mortality, The results displayed physical activity being associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality that was independent of traditional metabolic risk factors, The American Heart Association recommendations include the same findings as provided in the WCRF/ AICR recommendations list for people who are healthy, In regards to people with lower blood pressure or cholesterol, the association recommends that these individuals aim for around forty minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity around three or four times a week,[38] Weight control[edit] Achieving resilience through physical fitness promotes a vast and complex range of health related benefits, Individuals who keep up physical fitness levels generally regulate their distribution of body fat and stay away from obesity, Abdominal fat, specifically visceral fat, is most directly affected by engaging in aerobic exercise, Strength training has been known to increase the amount of lean muscle in the body, however it can also reduce body fat,[39] Sex steroid hormones, insulin, and an appropriate immune response are factors that mediate metabolism in relation to the abdominal fat, Therefore, physical fitness provides weight control through regulation of these bodily functions,[40] Neuropsychological effects[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Long-term effects Regular exercise is effective for preventing the age-related decline in cognition and improving overall neuropsychological function, The increased synthesis of neurotrophic factors in the body and brain and the resulting neurogenesis in various brain structures is largely responsible for these effects, Exercise also has persistent antidepressant effects and has been found to serve as both a means to prevent and treat drug addictions, particularly psychostimulant addictions, Menopause and physical fitness[edit] Menopause is the term that is used to refer to the stretch of both before and after a woman's last menstrual cycle, there are an instrumental amount of symptoms connected to menopause, most of which can affect the quality of life of the women involved in this stage of her life, One way to reduce the severity of the symptoms is exercise and keeping a healthy level of fitness, Pre or during menopause as the women body changes there can be physical, physiological or internal changes to the body, These changes can be prevented or the reduced with the use of regular exercise, these changes include;[41] Prevention of weight gain: around menopause women tend to lose their muscle mass and have it replaced with abdominal fat, Slight increases in physical exercise can help to prevent this, Reduce the risk of breast cancer: due to the weight loss from regular exercise it may offer protection from breast cancer, Strengthen the bones of the body: Physical activity can slow the bone loss after menopause reducing the chance of bone fractures and osteoporosis, Reduce the risk of disease: Excess weight can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and the regular physical activity can counter these effects, Boost the mood: By being involved in regular activities it can improve the psychological health, this can be the case at any age and not only for times during or after menopause,[42] The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project provided evidence that showed over an eight-year time period 438 were followed, even though the physical activity was not associated with VMS in this cohort at the beginning, women that reported they were physically active everyday at the beginning were 49% less likely to have reported bothersome hot flushes, this in contrast to women who level of activity decreased were more likely to experience bothersome hot flushes,[43] See also[edit] Health Physical exercise Outline of exercise Personal trainer Fitness professional Bodybuilding References[edit] Jump up ^ Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville (2010), "Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle", Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 35 (6): 725–740, doi:10,1139/H10-079, Jump up ^ de Groot, Gudrun Cathrine Lindgren; Fagerström, Lisbeth (June 14, 2010), "Older adults' motivating factors and barriers to exercise to prevent falls", Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 18 (2): 153–160, doi:10,3109/11038128,2010,487113, PMID 20545467, Jump up ^ Malina, R (2010), Physical activity and health of youth, Constanta: Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health, Jump up ^ "President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Definitions for Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity", fitness,gov, Archived from the original on 12 July 2012, Jump up ^ "Google Ngram Viewer", Google, Jump up ^ Glassman, Greg (1 October 2002), "What is Fitness?", CrossFit Journal, Jump up ^ Colfer, George R, (19 January 2004), "Skill-related physical fitness essential for sports success", tradoc,army,mil, Archived from the original on June 2011, Jump up ^ Nied, R, J,; Franklin, B (2002), "Promoting and prescribing exercise for the elderly", American family physician 65 (3): 419–26, PMID 11858624, Jump up ^ "Exercise for Your Bone Health", nih,gov, Jump up ^ 4177,0 – Participation in Sport and Physical Recreation, Australia, 2011–12, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 19 December 2012 Jump up ^ Physical Activity Fundamental To Preventing Disease, U,S, Department of Health & Human Services, 20 June 2002 Jump up ^ "How much physical activity do adults need?", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 December 2011, Retrieved 29 April 2013, Jump up ^ Pedersen, B, K,; Febbraio, M, A, (2012), "Muscles, exercise and obesity: Skeletal muscle as a secretory organ", Nature Reviews Endocrinology 8 (8): 457–65, doi:10,1038/nrendo,2012,49, PMID 22473333, Jump up ^ Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2008 Jump up ^ Mackenzie, B (2001), "Middle Distance Running", Middle Distance Running, BrianMac Sports Coach, Jump up ^ Training: Physical Fitness Program, sccfd,org Jump up ^ "Enlist : Army Physical Fitness Test", Army,com, Archived from the original on 6 January 2010, Jump up ^ "Running on the Beach: The Benefits & Dangers | Runners Feed", runnersfeed,com, Retrieved 2015-04-14, Jump up ^ Harriman, Dan (28 January 2015), "Aqua Jogging for Runners", livestrong,com, Jump up ^ Swimming Anatomy, Publisher: Human Kinetics, Year: 2010, ISBN 9781450409179, page: 147 Jump up ^ Blair, S, N, (1993), "1993 C,H, Mc Cloy Research Lecture: Physical activity, physical fitness, and health", Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 64 (4): 365–76, doi:10,1080/02701367,1993,10607589, PMID 8278662, Jump up ^ Wisløff, U; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Kemi, O, J, (2009), "High-intensity interval training to maximize cardiac benefits of exercise training?", Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 37 (3): 139–46, doi:10,1097/JES,0b013e3181aa65fc, PMID 19550205, Jump up ^ Gillen, J, B,; Gibala, M, J, (2014), "Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?", Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 39 (3): 409, doi:10,1139/apnm-2013-0187, Jump up ^ Shiraev, T; Barclay, G (2012), "Evidence based exercise – clinical benefits of high intensity interval training", Australian family physician 41 (12): 960–2, PMID 23210120, Jump up ^ Whitehurst, M, (2012), "High-intensity interval training: An alternative for older adults", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 6 (5): 382–386, doi:10,1177/1559827612450262, Jump up ^ Haskell, W, L,; Troiano, R, P,; Hammond, J, A,; Phillips, M, J,; Strader, L, C,; Marquez, D, X,; Grant, S, F,; Ramos, E, (2012), "Physical Activity and Physical Fitness", American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42 (5): 486, doi:10,1016/j,amepre,2011,11,017, PMID 22516489, Jump up ^ Osawa, Y; Azuma, K; Tabata, S; Katsukawa, F; Ishida, H; Oguma, Y; Kawai, T; Itoh, H; Okuda, S; Matsumoto, H (2014), "Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: A preliminary study", Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 5: 257–65, doi:10,2147/OAJSM,S68932, PMC: 4226445, PMID 25395872, Jump up ^ Exercise: A Drug-free Approach to Lowering High Blood Pressure, mayoclinic,org, Jump up ^ Blood Pressure : Exercise & Activity Lower Blood Pressure, bloodpressureuk,org ^ Jump up to: a b Alberts, David S, and Hess, Lisa M, (2005), Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention, Berlin: Springer, ISBN 364238983X, Jump up ^ U,S, Department of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Atlanta, GA: U,S, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996, Jump up ^ Colbert, Lisa H,; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M,; Tracy, Russell P,; Newman, Anne B,; Kritchevsky, Stephen B,; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R,; Brach, Jennifer (2004-07-01), "Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study", Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52 (7): 1098–1104, doi:10,1111/j,1532-5415,2004,52307,x, ISSN 0002-8614, PMID 15209647, Jump up ^ Kasapis, Christos; Thompson, Paul D, (2005-05-17), "The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory markers: a systematic review", Journal of the American College of Cardiology 45 (10): 1563–1569, doi:10,1016/j,jacc,2004,12,077, ISSN 0735-1097, PMID 15893167, Jump up ^ Campbell, Kristin L,; McTiernan, Anne (2007-01-01), "Exercise and biomarkers for cancer prevention studies", The Journal of Nutrition 137 (1 Suppl): 161S–169S, ISSN 0022-3166, PMID 17182820, Jump up ^ Nieman, DC (March 18, 1997), "Exercise immunology: practical applications,", Int J Sports Med, Jump up ^ Fairey, Adrian S,; Courneya, Kerry S,; Field, Catherine J,; Mackey, John R, (2002-01-15), "Physical exercise and immune system function in cancer survivors: a comprehensive review and future directions", Cancer 94 (2): 539–551, doi:10,1002/cncr,10244, ISSN 0008-543X, PMID 11900239, Jump up ^ Kruijsen-Jaarsma, Mirjam; Révész, Dóra; Bierings, Marc B,; Buffart, Laurien M,; Takken, Tim (2013-01-01), "Effects of exercise on immune function in patients with cancer: a systematic review", Exercise Immunology Review 19: 120–143, ISSN 1077-5552, PMID 23977724, Jump up ^ "Physical Activity and Blood Pressure," heart,org, Jump up ^ Westcott, W,L,; La Rosa Loud, R, (2014), "Strength for fat loss training", American Fitness 32 (1): 18–22, Jump up ^ Westerlind, K, C, (2003), "Physical activity and cancer prevention—mechanisms", Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 35 (11): 1834–40, doi:10,1249/01,MSS,0000093619,37805,B7, PMID 14600547, Jump up ^ Sternfeld, B,; Dugan, S, (2011), "Physical Activity and Health During the Menopausal Transition", Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 38 (3): 537, doi:10,1016/j,ogc,2011,05,008, PMID 21961719, Jump up ^ Pruthi, Sandhya (June 2013), "Fitness Tips for Menopause: Why fitness counts", Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Retrieved 11 April 2015, Jump up ^ Eschbach, Chris (January 12, 2012), "Exercise Recommendations for Menopause-Aged Women", American College of Sports Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, Retrieved 12 April 2015, Further reading[edit] 2004 September 21, Medical News Today, The Benefits of Physical Activity Brandon, Leigh (2009), Anatomy of Strength and Fitness Training for Speed, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-163363-5, External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fitness, Categories: Physical exercise --------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Pilates From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Contrology) This article is about the physical fitness system, For its inventor, see Joseph Pilates, For the Roman governor, see Pontius Pilate, For similar words, see Pilate (disambiguation) and Pilatus, This article needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (October 2009) Pilates 01,jpg Pilates (/p?'l??te?z/;[1] German: [pi'la?t?s]) is a physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates, and popular in many countries, including Germany,[2] the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom, As of 2005, there were 11 million people practicing the discipline regularly and 14,000 instructors in the United States alone,[3] Pilates called his method "Contrology" (from "control" and Greek -????a, -logia),[2] Contents 1 Benefits of Pilates 2 History 3 Principles 3,1 Concentration 3,2 Control 3,3 Centering 3,4 Flow or efficiency of movement 3,5 Precision 3,6 Breathing 4 Powerhouse 5 Precautions 6 Pilates in recent years 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading Benefits of Pilates Pilates is a body conditioning routine that may help build flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance in the legs, abdominals, arms, hips, and back,[4] It puts emphasis on spinal and pelvic alignment, breathing, and developing a strong core or center, and improving coordination and balance, Pilates' system allows for different exercises to be modified in range of difficulty from beginning to advanced, Intensity can be increased over time as the body conditions and adapts to the exercises,[4] Photo demonstrating a Pilates Teacher using verbal and tactile feedback to ensure proper form A 2013 systematic review found only inconclusive evidence that Pilates was beneficial to people with lower back pain,[5] History Pilates was designed by Joseph Pilates, a physical-culturist from Mönchengladbach, Germany, During the first half of the 20th century, he developed a system of exercises which were intended to strengthen the human mind and body, Pilates believed that mental and physical health are interrelated,[6] In his youth, he had practiced many of the physical training regimes available in Germany, and it was from these he developed his own work, It has clear connections with the physical culture of the late Nineteenth Century, such as the use of special apparatuses and claims that the exercises could cure ill health, It is also related to the tradition of "corrective exercise" or "medical gymnastics" as typified by Pehr Henrik Ling, Pilates published two books related to his training method: Your Health: A Corrective System of Exercising That Revolutionizes the Entire Field of Physical Education in 1934, and Return to Life Through Contrology in 1945, In common with early twentieth century physical culture, Pilates had an extremely high regard for the Greeks and the physical prowess demonstrated in their Gymnasium, His first students that went on to teach his methods and open studios, and most prominent include: Romana Kryzanowska, Kathy Grant, Jay Grimes, Ron Fletcher, Maja Wollman, Mary Bowen, Carola Treir, Bob Seed, Eve Gentry, Bruce King, Lolita San Miguel,[7] and Mary Pilates, Joseph's niece, Contemporary Pilates includes both the "Modern" Pilates and the "Classical/Traditional" Pilates, Modern Pilates is partly derived from the teaching of some first generation students, while Classical preserves and promotes the original work as Joseph Pilates taught it, The method was originally confined to the few and normally practised in a specialised studio, but with time this has changed and Pilates, in whatever form, can now be found in community centres, gyms, and physiotherapy rooms, and many other fitness services offered by Pilates-inspired businesses who have mixed their own understanding of Pilates with other disciplines, A variety of “modernâ€� schools of Pilates, heavily influenced by a physiotherapeutic approach to Pilates, have adapted the Pilates system in different ways for reasons unknown to and unapproved by its creator, Joseph Pilates, and by the contemporary schools of Authentic Pilates who continue teaching his method, Joseph Pilates died as sole master of his own method and still controlling the intellectual property of it, including his apparatus: a fact that only changed with the Lawsuit of October 2000,[8] Principles Philip Friedman and Gail Eisen, two students of Romana Kryzanowska, published the first modern book on Pilates, The Pilates Method of Physical and Mental Conditioning, in 1980 and in it they outlined six "principles of Pilates",[9] These have been widely adopted—and adapted—by the wider community, The original six principles were concentration, control, center, flow, precision, and breathing, Concentration Pilates demands intense focus: "You have to concentrate on what you're doing all the time, And you must concentrate on your entire body for smooth movements,"[10] This is not easy, but in Pilates the way that exercises are done is more important than the exercises themselves,[10] In 2006 at the Parkinson Center of the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon, the concentration factor of the Pilates method was being studied in providing relief from the degenerative symptoms of Parkinson's disease,[11] Control "Contrology" was Joseph Pilates' preferred name for his method and it is based on the idea of muscle control, "Nothing about the Pilates Method is haphazard, The reason you need to concentrate so thoroughly is so you can be in control of every aspect of every moment,"[12] All exercises are done with control with the muscles working to lift against gravity and the resistance of the springs and thereby control the movement of the body and the apparatus, "The Pilates Method teaches you to be in control of your body and not at its mercy,"[13] Centering For practitioners to control their bodies, they must have a starting place: the center, The center is the focal point of the Pilates Method,[14] Many Pilates teachers refer to the group of muscles in the center of the body—encompassing the abdomen, lower and upper back, hips, buttocks, and inner thighs—as the "powerhouse", All movement in Pilates should begin from the powerhouse and flow outward to the limbs, Flow or efficiency of movement Pilates aims for elegant sufficiency of movement, creating flow through the use of appropriate transitions, Once precision has been achieved, the exercises are intended to flow within and into each other in order to build strength and stamina, In other words, the Pilates technique asserts that physical energy exerted from the center should coordinate movements of the extremities: Pilates is flowing movement outward from a strong core,[15] Precision Precision is essential to correct Pilates: "concentrate on the correct movements each time you exercise, lest you do them improperly and thus lose all the vital benefits of their value",[16] The focus is on doing one precise and perfect movement, rather than many halfhearted ones, Pilates is here reflecting common physical culture wisdom: "You will gain more strength from a few energetic, concentrated efforts than from a thousand listless, sluggish movements",[17] The goal is for this precision to eventually become second nature, and carry over into everyday life as grace and economy of movement,[18] Breathing Breathing is important in the Pilates method, In Return to Life, Pilates devotes a section of his introduction specifically to breathing "bodily house-cleaning with blood circulation",[19] He saw considerable value in increasing the intake of oxygen and the circulation of this oxygenated blood to every part of the body, This he saw as cleansing and invigorating, Proper full inhalation and complete exhalation were key to this, "Pilates saw forced exhalation as the key to full inhalation,"[20] He advised people to squeeze out the lungs as they would wring a wet towel dry,[21] In Pilates exercises, the practitioner breathes out with the effort and in on the return,[22] In order to keep the lower abdominals close to the spine; the breathing needs to be directed laterally, into the lower rib cage, Pilates breathing is described as a posterior lateral breathing, meaning that the practitioner is instructed to breathe deep into the back and sides of his or her rib cage, When practitioners exhale, they are instructed to note the engagement of their deep abdominal and pelvic floor muscles and maintain this engagement as they inhale, Pilates attempts to properly coordinate this breathing practice with movement, including breathing instructions with every exercise, “Above all, learn to breathe correctly,â€�[23] Powerhouse Students are taught to use their “powerhouseâ€� throughout life’s daily activities, According to Joseph Pilates, the powerhouse is the centre of the body and if strengthened, it offers a solid foundation for any movement, This power engine is a muscular network which provides control over the body and comprises all the front, lateral and back muscles found between the upper inner thighs and arm pits, The Powerhouse is activated effectively by hollowing of the deep abdominals, by drawing the navel back into the spine in a zipping-up motion, from the pubic bone to the breast bone thereby engaging the heels, the back of the inner thighs, the deep, lower-back muscles, and the muscles surrounding the sitting bones and tailbone area without inhibiting the natural function of the diaphragm—that is without the practitioner holding their breath either from lifting the chest upwards or contracting the chest, In the sitting position the power engine elevates the torso and places the center of gravity at its highest and most efficient position; in prone position it elongates the body bidirectionally to reduce weight in the upper body; in supine position it elongates the body bidirectionally and places the center of gravity again at its highest and most efficient position, Precautions Safety is always involved in every aspect of the Pilates work-out, therefore there are precautions, modifications and protocols developed over decades within the knowledge of Pilates itself, that a fully qualified Pilates instructor should know and follow when working-out people with certain conditions, e,g,, during pregnancy, after birth, or with specific issues with their body, Safe teaching involves additional comprehensive inspection of the Pilates apparatus regularly and the way it is set up prior to a lesson,[24] Pilates in recent years In recent years the term “Pilatesâ€� has entered the mainstream, Following an unsuccessful trademark lawsuit, a U,S, federal court ruled the term “Pilatesâ€� generic and free for unrestricted use,[25] As a result, anyone in the United States, trained or untrained, can offer “Pilatesâ€� to the public, See also Core stability Feldenkrais Method Squatting position Alexander technique ------------------------------------------------------------------ SOME GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT Physical exercise From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Exercise) "Workout" redirects here, For other uses, see Workout (disambiguation), "Exercise" redirects here, For other uses, see Exercise (disambiguation), Page semi-protected Participant in a triathlon at Catoctin Mountain in 2005 Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness, It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment, Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity,[1][2] It also improves mental health, helps prevent depression, helps to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, and can even augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which is also found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem,[3] Childhood obesity is a growing global concern[4] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity, Health care providers often call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of proven benefits that it provides,[5][6] Contents 1 Classification 1,1 Types of exercise 1,2 Categories of physical exercise 1,3 Categories 2 Health effects 2,1 Cardiovascular system 2,2 Immune system 2,3 Brain function 2,4 Depression 2,5 Sleep 2,6 Excessive exercise 2,7 Myokine research 3 Public health measures 4 Exercise trends 5 Nutrition and recovery 6 History 7 In other animals 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links Classification Types of exercise Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types,[7] depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve the range of motion of muscles and joints,[8] Aerobic exercises, such as cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hiking or playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance,[9] Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training, functional training, eccentric training or sprinting and high-intensity interval training, increase short-term muscle strength,[10] Categories of physical exercise Strength training Agility training Eccentric training Interval training Continuous training Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used, 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow, Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise), Categories Physical exercise is used to improve physical skills, Physical skills fall into the following general categories: Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility, Power, Speed, Coordination, Agility, Balance, and Accuracy,[11] Health effects A common elliptical training machine US Marines exercising on the USS Bataan Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system, Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[12] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol,[13] which causes many health problems, both physical and mental,[14] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals,[15] According to the World Health Organization, lack of physical activity contributes to approximately 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of falls in the elderly, and 10% of breast cancer and colon cancer,[16] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 Max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality,[17] Exercise in space: Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, works out at the Unity node of the International Space Station using the short bar of the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform pull-ups to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can increase opioid peptides (a,k,a, endorphins, naturally occurring opioids that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters are responsible for exercise-induced euphoria and have been shown to be addictive), increase testosterone and growth hormone,[18] effects that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise, More recent research[19][20] indicates that anandamide may play a greater role than endorphins in "runner's high", However, training at high intensity for long periods of time, or without proper warmup beforehand and cooldown afterwards, can lead to an increased risk of injury and overtraining,[citation needed] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training), Such changes are generally beneficial and healthy if they occur in response to exercise, Not everyone benefits equally from exercise, There is tremendous variation in individual response to training; where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others can never augment endurance,[21][22] However, muscle hypertrophy from resistance training is primarily determined by diet and testosterone,[23] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population,[24][25] Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life,[26] Cardiovascular system The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented, There is a direct relation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700 to 2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations, The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active, Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age), ,,, persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival, ,,, Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality,[27] Immune system Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness, Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve, Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence, However, another study did not find the effect, Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections, The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar, Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant,[28] Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners,[28] Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects, The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect,[28] Brain function A 2008 review of cognitive enrichment therapies (strategies to slow or reverse cognitive decline) concluded that "physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function",[29] In mice, exercise improves cognitive functioning via improvement of spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis,[30] In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it, Then, over the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists, They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory, Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial, But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response,[31] The mice who were forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes in only one area, According to an author of the study, "our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions,"[32] In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases,[33] For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia,[34] Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage,[35] There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain, Examples are as follows: increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain; increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells[36] and promote synaptic plasticity[37] — possibly improving short and long term memory; increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin,[38] Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells,[39] Depression A number of factors may contribute to depression including being overweight, low self-esteem, stress, and anxiety,[40] Endorphins act as a natural pain reliever and antidepressant in the body,[41] Endorphins have long been regarded as responsible for what is known as "runner's high", a euphoric feeling a person receives from intense physical exertion,[42] However, recent research[19][20] indicates that anandamide may possibly play a greater role than endorphins in "runner's high", When a person exercises, levels of both circulating serotonin and endorphins are increased,[43] These levels are known to stay elevated even several days after exercise is discontinued, possibly contributing to improvement in mood, increased self-esteem, and weight management,[42] Exercise alone is a potential prevention method and/or treatment for mild forms of depression,[44] Research has also shown that when exercise is done in the presence of other people (familiar or not), it can be more effective in reducing stress than simply exercising alone,[45] Sleep A 2010 review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia, The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep, There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep,[46] According to a 2005 study, exercise is the most recommended alternative to sleeping pills for resolving insomnia, Sleeping pills are more costly than to make time for a daily routine of staying fit, and may have dangerous side effects in the long run, Exercise can be a healthy, safe and inexpensive way to achieve more and better sleep,[47] Excessive exercise Too much exercise can be harmful, Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[48] and muscle tissue may develop slowly, Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities,[49][50][51] Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual, For many activities, especially running and cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules, Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern,[52] whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern,[53][54] In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss, Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits,[55] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts,[56] Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood, Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs,[citation needed] Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations, While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging, This must be determined for each individual, Too much exercise can also cause a woman to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea,[57] Myokine research In a 2012 article regarding myokine research, Pedersen and Febbraio concluded that "physical inactivity and muscle disuse lead to loss of muscle mass and accumulation of visceral adipose tissue and consequently to the activation of a network of inflammatory pathways, which promote development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration and tumour growth and, thereby, promote the development of a cluster of chronic diseases, By contrast, the finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a molecular basis for understanding how physical activity could protect against premature mortality,,,, Physical inactivity or muscle disuse potentially leads to an altered or impaired myokine response and/or resistance to the effects of myokines, which explains why lack of physical activity increases the risk of a whole network of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus), cancer and osteoporosis,"[58] Public health measures As of 2011 the effects of community wide interventions to increase exercise levels at the population level is unknown,[59] Signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels,[60] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise, These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity,[61] Exercise trends Main article: Exercise trends Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[62] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits,[62] Personal lifestyle changes however can correct the lack of physical exercise, Nutrition and recovery Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise, When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise,[63] History The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity, Marcus Cicero, around 65 BC, stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor,"[64] However, the link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was only discovered in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris,[65][66] Dr, Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease,[66] This link had not previously been noted and was later confirmed by other researchers, In other animals Physical exercise has been shown to benefit a wide range of other mammals, as well as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird,[67] However, several studies have shown that lizards display no benefit from exercise, leading them to be termed "metabolically inflexible",[68][69] A number of studies of both rodents and humans have demonstrated that individual differences in both ability and propensity for exercise (i,e,, voluntary exercise) have some genetic basis,[70][71] See also Portal icon Health and fitness portal Portal icon Medicine portal Portal icon Society portal Portal icon Sports portal Main article: Outline of exercise Active living Behavioural change theories Central governor Exercise hypertension Exercise induced nausea Exercise intensity Exercise intolerance Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Exercise-induced asthma Exergaming Girls on the Run Green exercise Health club Kinesiology Metabolic equivalent Outdoor gym Pyri Supercompensation ------------------- Terms and phrases 1-shaped handstand ankles asana Back bends back leg balancing poses begin belly Bend your knees blanket boat pose bow pose calm abiding chest open child's pose chin corpse pose cushion downward dog elbows exhale Extend eyes fingertips five breaths foot forearm stand front ribs half-wheel hatha yoga head completely drop head to knee headstand hips hold this pose inner thighs inyour Keep your chest Keep your spine knee pose laying on back legs straight Let your head lunge mind mountain pose arms pelvis plank pose pose for three pose Q pose with prayer Prana prayer hands Press your palms push the floor Relaxyour right leg back savasana sequence shamatha shoulder stand shoulder stretch Sitting bones reach Spine stays long squat with prayer standing forward bend standing poses straddle stretch straight legs sun salute three to five toes Try to hold twist vinyasa walking meditation wall warrior warrior three yoga practice acids activity aerobic weight training Anna athletic basic beautiful become BENEFIT blood sugar Brown rice burn cellulite Christa clients complete complex carbohydrates confidence Cynthia daily dance DEAR FIRM diet dumbbells Endorphin energy exercise fat loss feel FIRM Believers FIRM Fuel FIRM instructor FIRM video FIRM workout FIRM's fitness focus fresh glucose goals grams grooming habits intake Jane Fonda keep knees lifestyle look low-fat ltsp MEAL SUBTOTAL meat metabolism minerals MINI-MEAL MINI-MEAL SUBTOTAL movement muscle muscle loss natural never nutritional oils percent physical protein Q WEIGHT REPS remember REPS Q WEIGHT rice Richard Simmons skin strength strength training stretch tapes TARGET MUSCLES tblsp thighs things TIPS FOR BEGINNERS tissue Udo Erasmus vitamins weight lifting weight loss WEIGHT REPS weight training women yogurt 24 Hour Fitness Academies According to Zumba Additional Sources aerobic apparel Aqua Zumba aspiring Zumba baby boomers become belly dancing birthday party body breast cancer bring Zumba build the Zumba cargo pants celebrities Chapter Classes are currently co­founder Alberto Perlman Combine Zumba Convention cumbia currently being offered dance moves devotees exercise feel fitness instructor flamenco founder Beto Perez four basic rhythms gear Gina Grant Gold­Toning gym rats health benefits hips hottest workout routine incorporate investment Jump Start Gold kids lifestyle merengue Neil Neil’s offer Zumba official Zumba participants Pitbull PlayStation pounds processed foods raise money Reggaeton salsa shaking Shakira strength training success stories tango teaching Zumba toning sticks type of workout types of dances Types Of Zumba video game weight loss workout DVD workout video world of Zumba worldwide exercise trainings overview you’re YouTube Zumba Fitness Zumba Gold Zumba(R Zumbathons Zumbatomic Zumbawear accessed aesthetic album American artists audience bachata Barrio beat Calderón Calle 13 Caribbean cidmuc commercial Cuba cultural Daddy Yankee dance dancehall dancehall reggae deï¬�ned Dem Bow dembow di√erent discourse Dominican Republic Don Omar e√ects essay female ï¬�gure ï¬�nd ï¬�rst flow Gasolina gender genre genre’s global Glory Glory’s groups Havana hip-hop hip-hop and reggae identiï¬�ed images influence interview Ivy Queen Jamaican Juan Latin America listen Luny Tunes mainstream male marginal merengue Miami música negra musicians Negra o√ers o≈cial Pacini Hernandez Panama Panamanian performers perreo Plátano Playero political popular music producers Puerto Rican racial radio rappers Raquel record reflection regeton reggae en español reggae’s reggaeton reguetón Renato Residente rhythm Rico Rico’s riddims Rivera salsa samples scene sexual signiï¬�cant sing singers social song sound Spanish speciï¬�c style Tego Calderón timba tion underground Vico Voltio Wayne Marshall woman women Yankee’s York youth ---------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT DIABETES Diabetes mellitus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Diabetes" redirects here, For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation), Page semi-protected Diabetes mellitus Classification and external resources Blue circle for diabetes,svg Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes,[1] ICD-10 E10–E14 ICD-9 250 MedlinePlus 001214 eMedicine med/546 emerg/134 MeSH C18,452,394,750 Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced,[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger), There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM), Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump, This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes", Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency, This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes", The third main form, gestational diabetes, occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level, It may precede development of type 2 DM, Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes, Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications, Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage), Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as stopping smoking and maintaining a healthy body weight, All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications, Insulin and some oral medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugars), which can be dangerous if severe, Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured,[3] Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM; gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM, Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery, Contents 1 Classification 1,1 Type 1 diabetes 1,2 Type 2 diabetes 1,3 Gestational diabetes 1,4 Other types 2 Signs and symptoms 2,1 Diabetic emergencies 2,2 Complications 3 Causes 3,1 Type 1 3,2 Type 2 4 Pathophysiology 5 Diagnosis 6 Management 6,1 Lifestyle 6,2 Medications 6,3 Support 7 Epidemiology 8 History 8,1 Etymology 9 Society and culture 10 Other animals 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Classification Comparison of type 1 and 2 diabetes[4] Feature Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Onset Sudden Gradual Age at onset Mostly in children Mostly in adults Body habitus Thin or normal[5] Often obese Ketoacidosis Common Rare Autoantibodies Usually present Absent Endogenous insulin Low or absent Normal, decreased or increased Concordance in identical twins 50% 90% Prevalence ~10% ~90% Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types",[2] The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes,[2] The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, The rare disease diabetes insipidus has similar symptoms to diabetes mellitus, but without disturbances in the sugar metabolism (insipidus means "without taste" in Latin) and does not involve the same disease mechanisms, The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), Likewise, the term "type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature, Type 1 diabetes Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency, This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic, The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which beta cell loss is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune attack,[6] There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes, which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe, Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs, Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages, Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were in children, "Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes, This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used,[7] There are many reasons for type 1 diabetes to be accompanied by irregular and unpredictable hyperglycemia, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes serious hypoglycemia, including an impaired counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, occult infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e,g,, Addison's disease),[7] These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type 1 diabetes,[8] Type 2 diabetes Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance, which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion,[2] The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor, However, the specific defects are not known, Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately, Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, In the early stage of type 2, the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity, At this stage, hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver, Gestational diabetes Main article: Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness, It occurs in about 2–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery, Gestational diabetes is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy, About 20–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life, Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother, Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations, Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome, Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction, In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment, Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function, A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia, A 2008 study completed in the U,S, found the number of American women entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes is increasing, In fact, the rate of diabetes in expectant mothers had more than doubled from 1999 to 2005,[9] This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy and increases the potential for the children of diabetic mothers to become diabetic in the future, Other types Prediabetes indicates a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 DM, Many people destined to develop type 2 DM spend many years in a state of prediabetes which has been termed "America's largest healthcare epidemic,"[10]:10–11 Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a condition in which type 1 DM develops in adults, Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 DM, based on age rather than etiology, Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body's tissue receptors not responding to insulin (even when insulin levels are normal, which is what separates it from type 2 diabetes); this form is very uncommon, Genetic mutations (autosomal or mitochondrial) can lead to defects in beta cell function, Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases, Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes (for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis), Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes (which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed), Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells, The ICD-10 (1992) diagnostic entity, malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM or MMDM, ICD-10 code E12), was deprecated by the World Health Organization when the current taxonomy was introduced in 1999,[11] Signs and symptoms Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are loss of weight, polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger),[12] Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes, Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes, Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis, A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes, Diabetic emergencies People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also present with diabetic ketoacidosis, a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone, a rapid, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, and altered states of consciousness, A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration, Complications Main article: Complications of diabetes mellitus All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications, These typically develop after many years (10–20), but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time, The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels, Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease,[13] The main "macrovascular" diseases (related to atherosclerosis of larger arteries) are ischemic heart disease (angina and myocardial infarction), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, Diabetes also damages the capillaries (causes microangiopathy),[14] Diabetic retinopathy, which affects blood vessel formation in the retina of the eye, can lead to visual symptoms including reduced vision and potentially blindness, Diabetic nephropathy, the impact of diabetes on the kidneys, can lead to scarring changes in the kidney tissue, loss of small or progressively larger amounts of protein in the urine, and eventually chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis, Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, the impact of diabetes on the nervous system — most commonly causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and also increasing the risk of skin damage due to altered sensation, Together with vascular disease in the legs, neuropathy contributes to the risk of diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) that can be difficult to treat and occasionally require amputation, Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness, Several studies suggest[15] a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes, Compared to those without diabetes, the research showed that those with the disease have a 1,2 to 1,5-fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function, and are at greater risk, In the United States, there were approximately 675,000 diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visits in 2010 that involved neurological complications, 409,000 ED visits with kidney complications, and 186,000 ED visits with eye complications,[16] Causes The cause of diabetes depends on the type, Type 1 Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus, A genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i,e,, the genetic "self" identifiers relied upon by the immune system), However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 DM seems to require an environmental trigger, The onset of type 1 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle, Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics,[17] A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than thirty), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization,[4] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders,[2] Those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio,[2] Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk,[18][19] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk,[17] Eating lots of white rice appears to also play a role in increasing risk,[20] A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases,[21] The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes:[22] Genetic defects of ß-cell function Maturity onset diabetes of the young Mitochondrial DNA mutations Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action Defects in proinsulin conversion Insulin gene mutations Insulin receptor mutations Exocrine pancreatic defects Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatectomy Pancreatic neoplasia Cystic fibrosis Hemochromatosis Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy Endocrinopathies Growth hormone excess (acromegaly) Cushing syndrome Hyperthyroidism Pheochromocytoma Glucagonoma Infections Cytomegalovirus infection Coxsackievirus B Drugs Glucocorticoids Thyroid hormone ß-adrenergic agonists Statins[23] Pathophysiology Question book-new,svg This section does not cite any references or sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (November 2009) The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals - one of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted, Mechanism of insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells - insulin production is more or less constant within the beta cells, Its release is triggered by food, chiefly food containing absorbable glucose, Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells (primarily muscle and fat cells, but not central nervous system cells), Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus, Humans are capable of digesting some carbohydrates, in particular those most common in food; starch, and some disaccharides such as sucrose, are converted within a few hours to simpler forms, most notably the monosaccharide glucose, the principal carbohydrate energy source used by the body, The rest are passed on for processing by gut flora largely in the colon, Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells (ß-cells), found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to rising levels of blood glucose, typically after eating, Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage, Insulin is also the principal control signal for conversion of glucose to glycogen for internal storage in liver and muscle cells, Lowered glucose levels result both in the reduced release of insulin from the ß-cells and in the reverse conversion of glycogen to glucose when glucose levels fall, This is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin, Glucose thus forcibly produced from internal liver cell stores (as glycogen) re-enters the bloodstream; muscle cells lack the necessary export mechanism, Normally, liver cells do this when the level of insulin is low (which normally correlates with low levels of blood glucose), Higher insulin levels increase some anabolic ("building up") processes, such as cell growth and duplication, protein synthesis, and fat storage, Insulin (or its lack) is the principal signal in converting many of the bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic direction, and vice versa, In particular, a low insulin level is the trigger for entering or leaving ketosis (the fat-burning metabolic phase), If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not have its usual effect, so it will not be absorbed properly by those body cells that require it, nor will it be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles, The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis, When the glucose concentration in the blood is raised to about 9-10 mmol/L (except certain conditions, such as pregnancy), beyond its renal threshold (i,e, when glucose level surpasses the transport maximum of glucose reabsorption), reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubuli is incomplete, and part of the glucose remains in the urine (glycosuria), This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss, Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst, Diagnosis See also: Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test Diabetes diagnostic criteria[24][25] edit Condition 2 hour glucose Fasting glucose HbA1c mmol/l(mg/dl) mmol/l(mg/dl) % Normal 1,500 Globally, as of 2010, an estimated 285 million people had diabetes, with type 2 making up about 90% of the cases,[4] Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and by 2030, this number is estimated to almost double,[39] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries, The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030,[39] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, perhaps most importantly a "Western-style" diet, This has suggested an environmental (i,e,, dietary) effect, but there is little understanding of the mechanism(s) at present, though there is much speculation, some of it most compellingly presented,[39] History Main article: History of diabetes Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,[40] with an Egyptian manuscript from c, 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine",[41] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes,[41] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or "honey urine", noting the urine would attract ants,[41] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Appollonius of Memphis,[41] The disease was considered rare during the time of the Roman empire, with Galen commenting he had only seen two cases during his career,[41] This is possibly due the diet and life-style of the ancient people, or because the clinical symptoms were observed during the advanced stage of the disease, Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" (diarrhea urinosa), The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd or early 3rd century CE), He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the "Pneumatic School", He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst, His work remained unknown in the West until the middle of the 16th century when, in 1552, the first Latin edition was published in Venice,[42] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with being overweight,[41] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination,[41] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922,[41] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s,[41] Etymology The word diabetes (/?da?,?'bi?ti?z/ or /?da?,?'bi?t?s/) comes from Latin diabetes, which in turn comes from Ancient Greek d?aß?t?? (diabetes) which literally means "a passer through; a siphon,"[43] Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl, 1st century CE) used that word, with the intended meaning "excessive discharge of urine", as the name for the disease,[44][45] Ultimately, the word comes from Greek d?aßa??e?? (diabainein), meaning "to pass through,"[43] which is composed of d?a- (dia-), meaning "through" and ßa??e?? (bainein), meaning "to go",[44] The word "diabetes" is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425, The word mellitus (/m?'la?t?s/ or /'m?l?t?s/) comes from the classical Latin word mellitus, meaning "mellite"[46] (i,e, sweetened with honey;[46] honey-sweet[47]), The Latin word comes from mell-, which comes from mel, meaning "honey";[46][47] sweetness;[47] pleasant thing,[47] and the suffix -itus,[46] whose meaning is the same as that of the English suffix "-ite",[48] It was Thomas Willis who in 1675 added "mellitus" to the word "diabetes" as a designation for the disease, when he noticed the urine of a diabetic had a sweet taste (glycosuria),[45] This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians, Society and culture Further information: List of films featuring diabetes The 1989 "St, Vincent Declaration"[49][50] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes, Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy, but also economically—expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health—and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments, Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease,[51] Diabetic patients with neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms,[52] In 2010, diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visit rates in the United States were higher among patients from the lowest income communities (526 per 10,000 population) than from the highest income communities (236 per 10,000 population), Approximately 9,4% of diabetes-related ED visits were for the uninsured,[53] Other animals Main articles: Diabetes in dogs and Diabetes in cats In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats, Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected, Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females, In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles,[54] The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious, Diabetic animals are more prone to infections, The long-term complications recognised in humans are much rarer in animals, The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e,g, ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans,[54] SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT DIETING: LOW CARB EATING Low-carbohydrate diet From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption, often for the treatment of obesity, Foods high in easily digestible carbohydrates (e,g,, sugar, bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fats and moderate protein (e,g,, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e,g,, most salad vegetables), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed, The amount of carbohydrate not allowed varies with different low-carbohydrate diets, Such diets are sometimes ketogenic (i,e,, they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis), The Induction phase of the Atkins diet[1][2][3] is ketogenic, The term "low-carbohydrate diet" is generally applied to diets that restrict carbohydrates to less than 20% of caloric intake, but can also refer to diets that simply restrict or limit carbohydrates,[4] Low-carbohydrate diets are used to treat or prevent some chronic diseases and conditions including: cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and diabetes,[5][6][7][8] epilepsy,[9][10][11] chronic fatigue syndrome (see ketosis) and polycystic ovarian syndrome, Contents [hide] 1 History 1,1 Prehistory 1,2 Early dietary science 1,3 Modern low-carbohydrate diets 1,4 1990s – present 2 Practices and theories 3 Ketosis and insulin synthesis: what is normal? 4 Studies on health effects 4,1 Weight loss 4,2 Blood lipids 4,3 Mortality 5 Opinions from major governmental and medical organizations 6 Criticism and controversies 6,1 Water-related weight loss 6,2 Exercise 6,3 Vegetables and fruits 6,4 Micronutrients and vitamins 6,5 Glucose availability 6,6 Other controversies 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading History[edit] Prehistory[edit] See also: Paleolithic: Diet and nutrition As with the paleolithic diet, several advocates of low-carbohydrate diets have argued that these diets are closer to the ancestral diet of humans before the origin of agriculture, and therefore that humans are genetically adapted to diets low in carbohydrate,[12] Direct archaeological or fossil evidence on nutrition during the Paleolithic, when all humans subsisted by hunting and gathering, is limited, but suggests that humans evolved from the vegetarian diets common to other great apes to one with a greater level of meat eating,[13] Some close relatives of modern Homo sapiens, such as the Neanderthals, appear to have been almost exclusively carnivorous,[14] A more detailed picture of early human diets before the origin of agriculture may be obtained by analogy to contemporary hunter-gatherers, According to one survey of these societies, a relatively low carbohydrate (22–40% of total energy), animal food-centered diet is preferred "whenever and wherever it [is] ecologically possible", and where plant foods do predominate, carbohydrate consumption remains low because wild plants are much lower in carbohydrate and higher in fiber than modern domesticated crops,[15] Primatologist Katherine Milton, however, has argued that the survey data on which this conclusion is based inflates the animal content of typical hunter-gatherer diets; much of it was based on early ethnography, which may have overlooked the role of women in gathering plant foods,[16] She has also highlighted the diversity of both ancestral and contemporary foraging diets, arguing that there is no evidence that humans are especially adapted to a single paleolithic diet over and above the vegetarian diets characteristic of the last thirty million years of primate evolution,[17] The origin of agriculture brought about a rise in carbohydrate levels in human diets,[18] The industrial age has seen a particularly steep rise in refined carbohydrate levels in Western societies, as well as urban societies in Asian countries like India, China, Japan etc, Early dietary science[edit] In 1797, John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications, A very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the 19th century,[19][20] In 1863, William Banting, a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer and potatoes,[21] His booklet was widely read, so much so that some people used the term "Banting" for the activity usually called "dieting",[22] In 1888, James Salisbury introduced the Salisbury steak as part of his high-meat diet, which limited vegetables, fruit, starches, and fats to one-third of the diet, Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit] In 1967, Irwin Stillman published The Doctor's Quick Weight Loss Diet, The "Stillman Diet" is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet, It is regarded as one of the first low-carbohydrate diets to become popular in the United States,[23] Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the Air Force Diet[24] and the Drinking Man’s Diet,[25] Austrian physician Wolfgang Lutz published his book Leben Ohne Brot (Life Without Bread) in 1967,[26] However, it was not well known in the English-speaking world, In 1972, Robert Atkins published Dr, Atkins Diet Revolution, which advocated a low-carbohydrate diet that he had successfully used in treating patients in the 1960s (having developed the diet from a 1963 article published in JAMA),[27] The book met with some success, but, because of research at that time suggesting risk factors associated with excess fat and protein, it was widely criticized by the mainstream medical community as being dangerous and misleading, thereby limiting its appeal at the time,[28] Among other things, critics pointed out that Atkins had done little real research into his theories and based them mostly on his clinical work, Later that decade, Walter Voegtlin and Herman Tarnower published books advocating the paleolithic diet and Scarsdale diet, respectively, each meeting with moderate success,[29] The concept of the glycemic index was developed in 1981 by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates, This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels – with fast digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower digesting complex carbohydrates such as whole grains a slower one,[30] The concept has been extended to include the amount of carbohydrate actually absorbed as well, as a tablespoonful of cooked carrots is less significant overall than a large baked potato (effectively pure starch, which is efficiently absorbed as glucose), despite differences in glycemic index, 1990s – present[edit] A pack of pork from Tesco is labelled with a sticker that says "No Carbs per serving", This is aimed at people on a low-carbohydrate diet, In the 1990s, Atkins published Dr, Atkins New Diet Revolution, and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles, This has been said to be the beginning of what the mass media call the "low carb craze" in the United States,[31] During the late 1990s and early 2000s, low-carbohydrate diets became some of the most popular diets in the US, By some accounts, up to 18% of the population was utilizing one type of low-carbohydrate diet or another at the peak of their popularity,[32] and this use spread to many countries, These were noted by some food manufacturers and restaurant chains as substantially affecting their businesses (notably Krispy Kreme[33]), Most of the mainstream medical community continued to denounce low-carbohydrate diets as being dangerous to health,[34][35][36] The low-carbohydrate advocates did some adjustments of their own, increasingly advocating controlling fat and eliminating trans fat,[37][38] Many of the diet guides and their proponents that appeared at this time intentionally distanced themselves from Atkins and the term low carb (because of the controversies), even though their recommendations were based on largely the same principles (e,g,, the Zone diet),[39][40] As a result, it is often a matter of debate which diets are really low-carbohydrate and which are not, The 1990s and 2000s also saw the publication of an increased number of clinical studies regarding the effectiveness and safety (pro and con) of low-carbohydrate diets (see low-carbohydrate diet medical research), In the United States, the popularity of the low-carb diet trend waned somewhat in the late 2000s,[citation needed] Despite the decline in popularity, this diet trend has continued to quietly garner attention in the medical and nutritional science communities, and also inspired a number of hybrid diets that include traditional calorie-counting and exercise regimens,[6][7][41][42] Other popular low-carb diets focus on the removal of certain foods from the diet, such as sugar and grain, Practices and theories[edit] Today, the term "low-carbohydrate diet" is most strongly associated with the Atkins Diet and other diets that share similar principles, The American Academy of Family Physicians defines low-carbohydrate diets as diets that restrict carbohydrate intake to 20 to 60 grams per day, typically less than 20 percent of caloric intake,[43] Some low-carbohydrate diets may exceed one or more of these definitions, notably the maintenance phase of the Atkins Diet, There is no consensus definition of what precisely constitutes a low-carbohydrate diet, Medical researchers and diet advocates may define different levels of carbohydrate intake when specifying low-carbohydrate diets, For the purposes of this discussion, this article focuses on diets that reduce (nutritive) carbohydrate intake sufficiently to significantly reduce insulin production and to encourage ketosis (production of ketones to be used as energy in place of glucose), The body of research underpinning low-carbohydrate diets has grown significantly in the decades of the 1990s and 2000s,[44][45] Most of this research centers on the relationship between carbohydrate intake and blood sugar levels (i,e,, blood glucose), as well as some related hormone levels, Some evidence suggests blood sugar levels in the human body should be maintained in a fairly narrow range to maintain good health, The two primary hormones that regulate blood sugar levels are insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels, and glucagon, which raises blood sugar levels,[46] These are both produced in the pancreas: insulin from beta cells and glucagon from alpha cells, In western diets (and many others), most meals are sufficiently high in nutritive carbohydrates to evoke insulin secretion, The primary control for this insulin secretion is glucose in the blood stream, typically from digested carbohydrate, Insulin also controls ketosis; in the non-ketotic state, the human body stores dietary fat in fat cells (i,e,, adipose tissue) and preferentially uses glucose as cellular fuel, Diets low in nutritive carbohydrates introduce less glucose into the blood stream and thus evoke less insulin secretion, which leads to longer and more frequent episodes of ketosis, Some research suggests that this causes body fat to be eliminated from the body, although this theory remains controversial, insofar as it refers to excretion of lipids (i,e,, fat and oil) and not to fat metabolism during ketosis,[47] Low-carbohydrate diet advocates in general recommend reducing nutritive carbohydrates (commonly referred to as "net carbs," i,e,, grams of total carbohydrates reduced by the non-nutritive carbohydrates)[48][49] to very low levels, This means sharply reducing consumption of desserts, breads, pastas, potatoes, rice, and other sweet or starchy foods, Some recommend levels less than 20 grams of "net carbs" per day, at least in the early stages of dieting[50] (for comparison, a single slice of white bread typically contains 15 grams of carbohydrate, almost entirely starch), By contrast, the U,S, Institute of Medicine recommends a minimum intake of 130 grams of carbohydrate per day (the FAO and WHO similarly recommend that the majority of dietary energy come from carbohydrates),[51][52] Low-carbohydrate diets often differ in the specific amount of carbohydrate intake allowed, whether certain types of foods are preferred, whether occasional exceptions are allowed, etc, Generally they all agree that processed sugar should be eliminated, or at the very least greatly reduced, and similarly generally discourage heavily processed grains (white bread, etc,), Low-carbohydrate diets vary greatly in their recommendations as to the amount of fat allowed in the diet, The Atkins Diet does not limit fat, Others recommend a moderate fat intake, Although low-carbohydrate diets are most commonly discussed as a weight-loss approach, some experts have proposed using low-carbohydrate diets to mitigate or prevent diseases including diabetes, metabolic disease and epilepsy,[53][54] Some low-carbohydrate proponents and others argue that the rise in carbohydrate consumption, especially refined carbohydrates, caused the epidemic levels of many diseases in modern society, including metabolic disease and type 2 diabetes,[55][56][57][unreliable source?] There is also a category of diets known as low-glycemic-index diets (low-GI diets) or low-glycemic-load diets (low-GL diets), in particular the Low GI Diet by Brand-Miller et al,[58] In reality, low-carbohydrate diets can also be low-GL diets (and vice versa) depending on the carbohydrates in a particular diet, In practice, though, "low-GI"/"low-GL" diets differ from "low-carb" diets in the following ways, First, low-carbohydrate diets treat all nutritive carbohydrates as having the same effect on metabolism, and generally assume that their effect is predictable, Low-GI/low-GL diets are based on the measured change in blood glucose levels in various carbohydrates – these vary markedly in laboratory studies, The differences are due to poorly understood digestive differences between foods, However, as foods influence digestion in complex ways (e,g,, both protein and fat delay absorption of glucose from carbohydrates eaten at the same time) it is difficult to even approximate the glycemic effect (e,g,, over time or even in total in some cases) of a particular meal, Another related diet type, the low-insulin-index diet, is similar except that it is based on measurements of direct insulemic responses (i,e,, the amount of insulin in the bloodstream) to food rather than glycemic response (the amount of glucose in the bloodstream), Although such diet recommendations mostly involve lowering nutritive carbohydrates, there are some low-carbohydrate foods that are discouraged as well (e,g,, beef),[59] Insulin secretion is stimulated (though less strongly) by other dietary intake, Like glycemic index diets, there is difficulty predicting the insulin secretion from any particular meal, due to assorted digestive interactions and so differing effects on insulin release, Ketosis and insulin synthesis: what is normal?[edit] At the heart of the debate about most low carbohydrate diets are fundamental questions about what is a normal diet and how the human body is supposed to operate, These questions can be outlined as follows: The diets of most people in modern Western nations, especially the United States, contain large amounts of starches and often substantial amounts of sugars, including fructose, Most westerners seldom exhaust stored glycogen supplies and hence rarely go into ketosis, This has been regarded by the majority of the medical community in the last century as normal for humans,[citation needed] Ketosis had been confused with ketoacidosis, a dangerous and extreme ketotic condition associated with diabetes, and had been regarded by the medical community as harmful and potentially life-threatening, who believe it unnecessarily stresses the liver and causes destruction of muscle tissues,[citation needed] A perception developed that getting energy chiefly from dietary protein rather than carbohydrates causes liver damage and that getting energy chiefly from dietary fats rather than carbohydrates causes heart disease and other health problems, This view is still held by the majority of those in the medical and nutritional science communities,[60][61][62] However, it is now widely recognized that periodic ketosis is in fact normal, and that ketosis provides a number of surprising benefits, including neuroprotection against diverse types of cellular injury,[63] People who eschew low carbohydrate diets cite hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis as a risk factor, While mild acidosis may be a side effect when beginning a ketogenic diet,[64][65] it is benign and should not be confused with diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be life threatening, A diet very low in starches and sugars induces several adaptive responses, Low blood glucose causes the pancreas to produce glucagon,[66] which stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood, When liver glycogen stores are exhausted, the body starts utilizing fatty acids instead of glucose, The brain cannot use fatty acids for energy, and instead uses ketones produced from fatty acids by the liver, By using fatty acids and ketones as energy sources, supplemented by conversion of proteins to glucose (gluconeogenesis), the body can maintain normal levels of blood glucose without dietary carbohydrates, Most advocates of low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins Diet, argue that the human body is adapted to function primarily in ketosis,[67][68] They argue that high insulin levels can cause many health problems, most significantly fat storage and weight gain, They argue that the purported dangers of ketosis are unsubstantiated (some of the arguments against ketosis result from confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis which is a mostly diabetic condition unrelated to dieting or low-carbohydrate intake),[69] They also argue that fat in the diet only contributes to heart disease in the presence of high insulin levels and that if the diet is instead adjusted to induce ketosis, fat and cholesterol in the diet are beneficial, Most low carb diets plans discourage consumption of trans fat, On a high-carbohydrate diet, glucose is used by cells in the body for the energy needed for their basic functions, and about 2/3 of body cells require insulin in order to use glucose, Excessive amounts of blood glucose are thought to be a primary cause of the complications of diabetes; when glucose reacts with body proteins (resulting in glycosolated proteins) and change their behavior, Perhaps for this reason, the amount of glucose tightly maintained in the blood is quite low, Unless a meal is very low in starches and sugars, blood glucose will rise for a period of an hour or two after a meal, When this occurs, beta cells in the pancreas release insulin to cause uptake of glucose into cells, In liver and muscle cells, more glucose is taken in than is needed and stored as glycogen (once called 'animal starch'),[70] Diets with a high starch/sugar content, therefore, cause release of more insulin and so more cell absorption, In diabetics, glucose levels vary in time with meals and vary a little more as a result of high carbohydrate content meals, In non-diabetics, blood sugar levels are restored to normal levels within an hour or two, regardless of the content of a meal, While there are essential fatty acids (EFA) and essential amino acids (EAA) and while a diet devoid of EFA or EAA will result in eventual death, a diet completely without carbohydrates can be maintained indefinitely because fatty acids include a carbohydrate backbone (glycerol),[71] There are essential fatty acids and amino acids for structural building blocks, not energy, EFA and EAA will be converted into intermediates for the carbohydrate metabolism, even if it depletes their essential stocks, However, a very low carbohydrate diet (less than 20g per day) may negatively affect certain biomarkers[72] and produce detrimental effects in certain types of individuals (for instance, those with kidney problems), The opposite is also true – for instance, clinical experience suggests very low carbohydrate diet for patients with metabolic syndrome,[73] Studies on health effects[edit] Main article: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets Because of the substantial controversy regarding low-carbohydrate diets and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies, it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus,[74] Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century,[75][76] most directly relevant scientific studies have occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s and, as such, are relatively new, Researchers and other experts have published articles and studies that run the gamut from promoting the safety and efficacy of these diets[77][78] to questioning their long-term validity[79][80] to outright condemning them as dangerous,[81][82] A significant criticism of the diet trend was that there were no studies that evaluated the effects of the diets beyond a few months, However, studies emerged which evaluate these diets over much longer periods, controlled studies as long as two years and survey studies as long as two decades,[77][83][84][85][86] Weight loss[edit] A 2003 meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials found that "low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1-year,"[87][88][89] A 2007 JAMA study comparing the effectiveness of the Atkins low-carb diet to several other popular diets concluded "In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets,"[84] A July 2009 study of existing dietary habits associated a low carbohydrate diet with obesity, although the study drew no explicit conclusion regarding the cause: Whether the diet resulted in the obesity or the obesity motivated people to adopt the diet,[90] A 2013 meta-analysis that included only randomized controlled trials with one year or more of follow-up found that "Individuals assigned to a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a low fat diet in the long term, "[91] One theory is that one of the reasons people lose weight on low carbohydrate diet is related to the phenomenon of spontaneous reduction in food intake,[92] Blood lipids[edit] Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered,[93] However, the type of LDL cholesterol should also be taken into account here as it could be that small dense LDL is decreased and larger LDL molecules are increased with low carbohydrate diets[citation needed], The health effects of the different molecules are still being elucidated and many cholesterol tests do not account for such details, but it is thought that small, dense LDL is problematic and large LDL is not, A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found that measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets, The authors of this review also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets, and concluded that "evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1-year," but they also called for more long-term studies,[94] Mortality[edit] A study of more than 100,000 people over more than 20 years within the Nurses' Health Study observationally concluded that a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetables, with a large proportion of proteins and oils coming from plant sources, decreases mortality with a hazard ratio of 0,8,[95] In contrast, a low-carbohydrate diet with largely animal sources of protein and fat increases mortality, with a hazard ratio of 1,1,[95] This study, however, has been met with criticism, due to the unreliability of the self-administered food frequency questionnaire, as compared to food journaling,[96] as well as classifying "low-carbohydrate" diets based on comparisons to the group as a whole (decile method) rather than surveying dieters following established low-carb dietary guidelines like the Atkins or Paleo diet,[97] Opinions from major governmental and medical organizations[edit] Although opinions regarding low-carbohydrate diets vary greatly throughout the medical and nutritional science communities, major government bodies as well as major medical and nutritional associations have generally opposed this nutritional regimen, In recent years, however, some[who?] of these same organizations have gradually begun to relax their opposition to the point that some have even voiced cautious support for low-carbohydrate diets[citation needed], The following are official statements from some of these organizations, American Academy of Family Physicians The AAFP released a discussion paper on the Atkins Diet specifically in 2006, Although the paper expresses reservations about the Atkins plan they acknowledge it as a legitimate weight loss approach,[98] American Diabetes Association The ADA revised their Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes in 2008 to acknowledge low-carbohydrate diets as a legitimate weight-loss plan,[99][100][101] The recommendations fall short of endorsing low-carbohydrate diets as a long-term health plan nor do they give any preference to these diets, Nevertheless, this is perhaps the first statement of support—albeit for the short-term—by one of the foremost medical organizations,[102][103] In its 2009 publication of Clinical Practice Recommendations, the ADA again reaffirmed its acceptance of carbohydrate-controlled diets as an effective treatment for short-term (up to one year) weight loss among obese people suffering from type two diabetes,[104] American Dietetic Association As of 2003 in commenting on a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association reiterated the association's belief that "there is no magic bullet to safe and healthful weight loss,"[105] The Association specifically endorses the high-carbohydrate diet recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, They have stated "Calories cause weight gain, Excess calories from carbohydrates are not any more fattening than calories from other sources, Despite the claims of low-carb diets, a high-carbohydrate diet does not promote fat storage by enhancing insulin resistance,"[106] American Heart Association The official statement from the AHA regarding these diets states categorically that the association "doesn't recommend high-protein diets,"[107] A science advisory from the association further states the association's belief that these diets are "associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease,"[34] The AHA has been one of the most adamant opponents of low-carbohydrate diets, Dr, Robert Eckel, past president, noted that the association supported low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets, but that a low-carbohydrate diet could potentially meet AHA guidelines,[108] Australian Heart Foundation The position statement by the Heart Foundation regarding low-carbohydrate diets states that "the Heart Foundation does not support the adoption of VLCARB diets for weight loss,"[109] Although the statement recommends against use of low-carbohydrate diets it explains that their major concern is saturated fats as opposed to carbohydrate restriction and protein, Moreover, other statements suggest that their position might be re-evaluated in the event of more evidence from longer-term studies, Food Standards Agency (UK) The consumer advice statements of the FSA regarding low-carbohydrate diets state that "rather than avoiding starchy foods, it's better to try and base your meals on them,"[110] They further state concerns regarding fat consumption in low-carbohydrate diets, Heart & Stroke Foundation (Canada) The official position statement of the Heart & Stroke Foundation states "Do not follow a low carbohydrate diet for purposes of weight loss,"[111] They state concerns regarding numerous health risks particularly those related to high consumption of "saturated and trans fats", National Board of Health and Welfare (Sweden) In 2008, the Socialstyrelsen in Sweden altered its standing regarding low-carbohydrate diets,[112][113] Although formal endorsement of this regimen has not yet appeared, the government has given its formal approval for using carbohydrate-controlled diets for medically supervised weight loss, In recommendation for diets suitable for diabetes patients published in 2011 a moderate low-carb option (30–40%) is suggested, U,S, Department of Health and Human Services The HHS issues consumer guidelines for maintaining heart health which state regarding low-carbohydrate diets that "they're not the route to healthy, long-term weight management,"[114] Criticism and controversies[edit] Water-related weight loss[edit] In the first week or two of a low-carbohydrate diet a great deal of the weight loss comes from eliminating water retained in the body (many doctors say that the presence of high levels of insulin in the blood causes unnecessary water retention in the body),[citation needed][115] However, this is a short-term effect and is entirely separate from the general weight loss that these diets can produce through eliminating excess body fat, A ketogenic diet is known to cause dehydration as an early-onset complication,[116] Exercise[edit] John McDougall, a physician, diet book author, and advisory board member of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, contends that low-carbohydrate diets can inherently cause weakness or fatigue[117] giving rise to the occasional assumption that low-carbohydrate dieting cannot involve an exercise regimen, Advocates of low-carbohydrate diets generally dispute any suggestion that such diets cause weakness or exhaustion (except in the first few weeks as the body adjusts) and indeed most highly recommend exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle,[115][118] There is a large body of evidence stretching back to the 1880s that shows that physical performance is not negatively affected by ketogenic diets once a person has been acclimatized to such a diet,[119] Arctic cultures, such as the Inuit, were found to lead physically demanding lives and yet consume a diet almost completely devoid of carbohydrates,[119] However, studies also indicate that while a low carbohydrate diet will not reduce endurance performance after adapting, they will probably deteriorate anaerobic performance such as strength training or sprint running because these processes rely on glycogen for fuel,[118] A living example that a ketogenic diet can indeed be combined with outstanding achievements in physical exercise is the Olympic biathlon gold medalist Björn Ferry, who won his gold medal after about 6 months on a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet,[120] A ketogenic diet has not been found to impair physical performance of athletes,[121] Vegetables and fruits[edit] Many critics[who?] argue that low-carbohydrate diets inherently require minimizing vegetable and fruit consumption which in turn robs the body of important nutrients,[122] Some critics imply or explicitly argue that vegetables and fruits are inherently all heavily concentrated sources of carbohydrates (so much so that some sources literally treat the words vegetable and carbohydrate as synonymous),[123] While some fruits may contain relatively high concentrations of sugar, most are largely water and not particularly calorie-dense, Thus, in absolute terms, even sweet fruits and berries do not represent a significant source of carbohydrates in their natural form and also typically contain a good deal of fiber which attenuates the absorption of sugar in the gut[124] and lastly, most of the sugar in fruit is fructose which, in obese subjects, has a reported negligible effect on insulin levels,[125] Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods (note that in the context of these diets fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate), Some vegetables like potatoes and carrots have high concentrations of starch as do corn and rice, Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, cauliflower, and peppers,[126] The Atkins Diet recommends that most dietary carbs come from vegetables, Nevertheless debate remains as to whether restricting even just high-carbohydrate fruits, vegetables, and grains is truly healthy,[127] Contrary to the recommendations of most low-carbohydrate diet guides, some individuals may choose to avoid vegetables altogether in order to minimize carbohydrate intake, Low-carbohydrate vegetarianism is also practiced, Raw fruits and vegetables are packed with an array of other protective chemicals like vitamins, flavonoids and sugar alcohols, Some of those molecules help safeguard against the over-absorption of sugars in the human digestive system,[128][129] Industrial food raffination depletes some of those beneficial molecules to various degrees, including almost total removal in many cases,[130][131] Micronutrients and vitamins[edit] The major low-carbohydrate diet guides generally recommend multi-vitamin and mineral supplements as part of the diet regimen which may lead some to believe that these diets are nutritionally deficient, The primary reason for this recommendation is that if the switch from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet is rapid, the body can temporarily go through a period of adjustment during which the body may require extra vitamins and minerals (the reasons have to do with the body's releasing excess fluids that were stored during high-carbohydrate eating),[citation needed] In other words, the body goes through a temporary "shock" if the diet is changed to low-carbohydrate dieting quickly just as it would changing to a high-carbohydrate diet quickly, This does not, in and of itself, indicate that either type of diet is nutritionally deficient,[citation needed] While it is true that many foods that are rich in carbohydrates are also rich in vitamins and minerals, there are many low-carbohydrate foods that are similarly rich in vitamins and minerals,[132] Glucose availability[edit] A common argument in favor of high-carbohydrate diets is that most carbohydrates break down readily into glucose in the bloodstream and, therefore, the body does not have to work as hard to get its energy in a high-carbohydrate diet as a low-carbohydrate diet, This argument, by itself, is incomplete, Although many dietary carbohydrates do break down into glucose, most of that glucose does not remain in the bloodstream for long, Its presence stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin which has the effect of causing about 2/3 of body cells to take in glucose, and to cause fat cells to take in fatty acids and store them, As the blood glucose level falls, the amount of insulin released is reduced; the entire process is completed in non-diabetics in an hour or two after eating,[133] High-carbohydrate diets require more insulin production and release than low-carbohydrate diets[citation needed] and there is some evidence that the increasingly large percentage of calories consumed as refined carbohydrates is positively correlated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes,[134] In addition, this claim neglects the nature of the carbohydrates ingested, Some are indigestible in humans (e,g,, cellulose), some are poorly digested in humans (e,g,, the amylose starch variant), and some require considerable processing to be converted to absorbable forms, In general, uncooked or unprocessed (e,g,, milling, crushing, etc,) foods are harder (typically much harder) to absorb and so do not raise glucose levels as much as might be expected from the proportion of carbohydrate present, Cooking (especially moist cooking above the temperature necessary to expand starch granules), and mechanical processing, both considerably raise the amount of absorbable carbohydrate and reduce the digestive effort required, Analyses which neglect these factors are misleading and will not result in a working diet, or at least one which works as intended, (See Catching Fire, Richard Wrangham) In fact, there is some evidence that the human brain – the largest consumer of glucose in the body – can operate more efficiently on ketones,[135][not in citation given] Other controversies[edit] In 2004, the Canadian government ruled that foods sold in Canada could not be marketed with reduced or eliminated carbohydrate content as a selling point because reduced carbohydrate content was not determined to be a health benefit, and that existing "low carb" and "no carb" packaging would have to be phased out by 2006,[citation needed] Some variants of low carbohydrate diets involve substantially lowered intake of dietary fiber which can result in constipation if not supplemented,[citation needed] For example, this has been a criticism of the Induction phase of the Atkins diet (the Atkins diet is now clearer about recommending a fiber supplement during Induction), Most advocates today argue that fiber is a "good" carbohydrate and encourage a high-fiber diet, It has been hypothesized that a diet-related change in blood acidity can lead to bone loss through a process called ketoacidosis, as mentioned earlier in this article, However ketoacidosis, which is often confused with ketosis, is an acute medical condition caused by extreme fasting or as a symptom of untreated diabetes, and is not likely to be induced by an otherwise adequate low-carbohydrate diet, One of the occasional side effects of a ketogenic diet is a noticeable smell of ketones in the urine, perspiration, and breath,[136] This is caused by the presence of larger than usual amounts of the three ketone bodies normally produced during fat metabolism, One of the ketone bodies, acetone, is released via the lungs and has a characteristic smell of overripe fruit or nail polish remover, In most cases, periodic ketosis (as occurs between widely separated meals) does not cause a noticeable odor, See also[edit] Richard K, Bernstein Cyclic ketogenic diet Richard D, Feinman Gary Taubes Healthy diet High residue diet Insulin resistance Ketogenic diet, a medically supervised diet used to treat epilepsy List of diets Low Carbohydrate High Quality (LCHQ) Low glycemic index diet Low residue diet No-carbohydrate diet Online weight loss plans Shirataki noodles SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Runner's World From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (October 2011) Runner's World Editor-in-Chief David Willey Categories Health Running Marathons Frequency Monthly Publisher Rodale Press Total circulation (December 2012) 710,618[1] First issue 1966 Country United States Based in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, United States Language English Website runnersworld,com ISSN 0897-1706 Runner's World is a globally circulated monthly magazine for runners of all skills sets, published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, in the United States, Recognized as the worldwide authority on running information, the mission of Runner’s World is to inform, advise and motivate runners of all ages and abilities, Runner’s World aims to help runners achieve their personal health, fitness and performance goals while inspiring them with vivid, memorable storytelling, Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Purchased by Rodale Press 3 International circulation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Beginnings Runner's World was originally launched in 1966 by Bob Anderson as Distance Running News, and Anderson published the magazine by himself for several years from his home in Manhattan, Kansas, Runner and writer Hal Higdon had been writing for the magazine since the beginning (2nd edition), In 1969, Anderson changed the name of the magazine to Runner's World,[2] He brought on Joe Henderson as chief editor and moved the editorial offices, now named World Publications, to Mountain View, California, Runner's World thrived during the 1970s "running boom", even in the face of competition from the New York-based magazine, The Runner, Purchased by Rodale Press In the early 1980s, Bob Anderson sold a good portion of his publications, including Runner's World,[citation needed] Some of Anderson's books went out of print while others were distributed by Macmillan Publishing,[citation needed] Robert Rodale of Rodale Press, purchased Runner's World and the editorial offices moved to Rodale's base in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Joe Henderson did not move to Emmaus, and stepped down as editor, though he remained associated with the magazine until 2003, Random House bought the running log, which was published under the Runner's World name for decades after the sale, Not long after buying Runner's World, Rodale bought The Runner,[3] and merged the two magazines, keeping the Runner's World name and some writers, including Amby Burfoot who became the editor (a post he held until 2003), Runner's World remained strong through the so-called "second running boom" in the late 1990s, In 2004, the magazine had a full redesign, Since then, the magazine has won several awards including being ranked #1 on Adweek's Hot List,[citation needed] #6 on Advertising Age's "A-List";[citation needed] been recognized for having the "Creative Team of the Year",[citation needed] and most notably has been nominated three times for National Magazine Awards,[citation needed] Also, since the redesign, the magazine's circulation has increased from 525,000 to 650,000[citation needed] at a time when most consumer magazines' circulations have declined,[citation needed] and advertising pages and revenue remain at an all time high,[citation needed] The vice-president and publisher of Runner's World's United States' edition is Christopher Lambiase and its editor is David Willey,[citation needed] In February 2007, Rodale acquired Running Times magazine with the objective of getting the magazine back on its original mission to serve the front of the pack,[citation needed] International circulation Since the early 1990s, Runner's World has expanded outside the United States, currently with 14 international editions, The first was a United Kingdom edition wholly owned by NatMag Rodale, a joint venture between Rodale Inc, and The Hearst Corporation in the UK, Editions in Australia/New Zealand, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands/Belgium, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Spain, and Sweden are published either as joint ventures or through licensing arrangements with publishers in those countries, Editors in each country have access to editorial content from the U,S, edition, but also publish their own original content with local flavor, See also Bob Anderson John Bingham Browning Ross -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Road running From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Road running in a U,S, Air Force marathon People taking part in the Bristol Half Marathon Athletes at the start of a 10-mile race in Gloucestershire, UK, 1990 Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running), These events would be classified as long distance according to athletics terminology, with distances typically ranging from 5 kilometers to 42,2 kilometers in the marathon, They may involve large numbers of runners or wheelchair entrants, Road running is part of a group of road events known as "road races", Road running may offer those involved a range of challenges and interests such as dealing with hills, sharp bends, varied surfaces, inclement weather, and involvement in a large group, Aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to use oxygen, is the biggest factor contributing to success,[citation needed] The impact of running on roads puts more stress on the feet, knees and lower back than running on dirt or grass, It can compensate by providing a consistent, level surface, It may put less strain on the Achilles tendon,[1] Contents 1 Courses 2 Ultrarunning 3 Multiday running 4 Participation 5 Governing body and international organisations 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Courses Race courses are usually held on the streets of major cities and towns, but can be on any road, The IAAF recognizes nine common distances for road races: 10 kilometres (6,2 mi), 15 kilometres (9,3 mi), 20 kilometres (12 mi), half-marathon (21,097 km or 13,1 mi), 25 kilometres (16 mi), 30 kilometres (19 mi), marathon (42,195 km or 26,2 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), and Ekiden marathon relay,[2] Other common distances include 5 kilometres (3,1 mi), 8 kilometres (5,0 mi), 12 kilometres (7,5 mi), and 10 miles (16 km), Some major events have unique distances, The "Round the Bays" run in Auckland, New Zealand is 8,4 kilometres (5,2 mi); the Falmouth Road Race in Falmouth, Cape Cod is 7,1 miles (11,4 km); "City to Surf" in Sydney, Australia is 14 kilometres (8,7 mi); Honolulu's "Great Aloha Run" is 8,15 miles (13,12 km); the "King Island Imperial 20"[3] is 32 kilometres (20 mi) long; and the "Charleston Distance Run" in Charleston, West Virginia is 15 miles (24 km), Most road race courses are certified to be accurate to within 0,1%, that is, to within 10 m for a 10 km race,[4] Certified courses are often intentionally lengthened by one metre per km to ensure that they are not short of the stated distance, A Jones Counter attached to a bicycle is used to measure course length, Remeasurement to verify the length is undertaken when a world record is set on a course, Ultrarunning See also: Ultramarathon Running that covers a distance farther than a marathon is called ultrarunning; the event is an ultramarathon, Such events can be measured in distance (for example, 100 kilometers) or by time (whoever has run the farthest after 24 hours), Examples include the London to Brighton run in England which is just over 54 miles (87 km), the Comrades Marathon run between Pietermaritzburg and Durban in South Africa which is about 89 kilometres (55 mi), and the Badwater Ultramarathon between Death Valley and Mount Whitney in the United States which is 135 miles (217 km) (with a net elevation gain of over 4,500 meters, almost 15,000 feet), Multiday running See also: Multiday races Beyond the ultramarathon lie the multiday and stage races, These events include current events such as the Self-Transcendence 6 & 10 day and 3100 mile races in New York, Trans-America, Trans-Gaul, Trans-Korea, Trans-Europe race and the cross Germany race - the Deutschlandlauf, In these events runners have to complete as many miles as possible in the given time limit - the go-as-you-please style or have to complete a given distance in a set time such as the daily stages of the trans-country races where cut-offs are enforced, Participation Road running is unique among athletic events because in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to participate in the same event as members of running clubs and even current world-class champions, Though often race times are recorded manually by race organizers, sometimes road races feature electronic timing using transponders, Road races are often community-wide events that highlight or raise money for an issue or project, In the USA, Susan G, Komen's Race for the Cure is held nationwide to raise breast cancer awareness, This race is also run in Germany, Italy and Puerto Rico, Similarly, Race for Life holds races throughout the UK to raise money for Cancer Research, First person "race reports" frequently appear on the Dead Runners Society electronic mailing list, Dublin, Ireland's Women's Mini-Marathon is said to be the largest all-female event of its kind in the world,[5] Governing body and international organisations The international governing body for road racing is the IAAF, National governing bodies which are affiliated to the IAAF are responsible for road races held in their country, Of the thousands of road races held each year, 238 races, including some premier ones, are members of the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS), Many race organizers (or the running clubs which conduct the races) are members of the Road Runners Club of America, In addition, the USA Track & Field plays a role in selecting representatives for certain international competitions under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, Competitors from around the world participate in what are dubbed the "elite" races for cash prizes, Kenyans and Ethiopians are renowned for their skill and it is rare for a race's top finishers not to include competitors from these countries, Elite level road running series include the World Marathon Majors, the Great Run series, and IAAF Road Race Label Events, See also Fell running Cross country running List of largest running events Orienteering Track running Trail running -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Cooking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the preparation of food by heating, For food preparation generally, see Food preparation, Modern fruit salad and a "Russian cigarette" pastry stuffed with cottage cheese Cooking is the art or practice of preparing food with the use of heat or cold for consumption, Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions, Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training, Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, most notably as in Ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice, Sushi also utilizes a similar chemical reaction between fish and the acidic content of rice glazed with vinegar, Chicken, pork and bacon-wrapped corn cooked in a barbecue smoker Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans, and some scientists believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution,[1] Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago, The development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients, New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques, Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation,[2] Contents 1 History 2 Ingredients 2,1 Carbohydrates 2,2 Fats 2,3 Proteins 2,4 Vitamins and minerals 2,5 Water 3 Methods 4 Cooking and health 4,1 Food safety 4,2 Effects on nutritional content of food 4,3 Cooking and carcinogens 4,4 Other health issues 5 Science of cooking 6 Home-cooking vs, factory cooking 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History See also: Culinary arts The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with USA and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject, Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page, (November 2012) Historical oven cooking depicted in a painting by Jean-François Millet Cooking utilizes many foods, There is no clear archaeological evidence when food was first cooked, Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires began only about 250,000 years ago, when hearths started appearing,[3] Phylogenetic analysis by Chris Organ, Charles Nunn, Zarin Machanda, and Richard Wrangham suggests that cooking may have been invented as far back as 1,8 million to 2,3 million years ago,[4] Other researchers believe that cooking was invented as recently as 40,000 or 10,000 years ago, Evidence of fire is inconclusive, as wildfires started by lightning-strikes are still common in East Africa and other wild areas, and it is difficult to determine when fire was first used for cooking, as opposed to just being used for warmth or for keeping predators away, Wrangham proposed cooking was instrumental in human evolution, as it reduced the time required for foraging and led to an increase in brain size, He estimates the percentage decrease in gut size of early humans directly correlates to the increase in brain size,[5] Most other anthropologists, however, oppose Wrangham,[6] stating that archeological evidence suggests that cooking fires began in earnest only about 250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint appear across Europe and the Middle East, Two million years ago, the only sign of fire is burnt earth with human remains, which most other anthropologists consider to be mere coincidence rather than evidence of intentional fire,[7] The mainstream view among anthropologists is that the increases in human brain size occurred well before the advent of cooking, due to a shift away from the consumption of nuts and berries to the consumption of meat,[8][9] Food has become a part of material culture, and cuisine is much more than a substance, In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, food was a classic marker in Europe, However, in the nineteenth century, cuisine became a defining symbol of national identity, The discovery of the New World represented a major turning point in the history of food because of the movement of foods from and to Europe, such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn, yams, and beans, Food in America consisted of traditions that were adapted from England, but up until the end of this century, the presence of new ingredients along with the contact between diverse ethnic groups influenced experimentation, Industrialization was also a turning point that changed how food affected the nation, During the period of industrialization, food began to be mass-produced, mass marketed, and standardized, Factories processed, preserved, canned, and packaged a wide variety of foods, and processed cereals quickly became a defining feature of the American breakfast, In the twenties, freezing methods as well as the earliest cafeterias and fast food establishments emerged, This point in time is when processed and nationally distributed foods became a huge part of the nation's diet, Along with changes in food, there have also been several changes in nutritional guidelines as well, Since 1916, there have been several different nutrition guidelines issued by the United States government, eventually leading up to the food pyramid,[10] In 1916, "Food For Young Children" along with its sequel for adults, "How to Select Foods" was the first USDA guide to give specific dietary guidelines, Updated in the 1920s to these guides gave shopping suggestions for different-sized families along with a Depression Era revision which included four cost levels, In 1943, the USDA created the "Basic Seven" chart to make sure that people got the recommended nutrients, It included the first-ever Recommended Daily Allowances from the National Academy of Sciences, In 1956, the "Essentials of an Adequate Diet" brought recommendations which cut seven down to four groups that school children would learn about for decades, In 1979, a guide called "Food" was published, which addressed the link between too much of certain foods and chronic diseases, This publication also added "fats, oils, and sweets" to the four basic food groups and cautioned moderation, In 1992, the food pyramid was debuted, The USDA introduced this, which represented proportions of foods in a balanced diet, In 2005, the pyramid got a makeover and was renamed MyPyramid, Lastly, in 2011, "MyPlate" came about, Ingredients Most ingredients in cooking are derived from living organisms, Vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts as well as herbs and spices come from plants, while meat, eggs, and dairy products come from animals, Mushrooms and the yeast used in baking are kinds of fungi, Cooks also use water and minerals such as salt, Cooks can also use wine or spirits, Naturally occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called proteins, carbohydrates and fats, They also contain water and minerals, Cooking involves a manipulation of the chemical properties of these molecules, Carbohydrates Main article: Carbohydrate Grain products are often baked, and are rich sources of complex and simple carbohydrates, Carbohydrates include the common sugar, sucrose (table sugar), a disaccharide, and such simple sugars as glucose (from the digestion of table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, and potato, The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex, Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into simpler sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups, If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelization starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel, Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique, An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked, In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces, In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water, These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces, This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat, Fats Main article: Fat Batter coated and deep-fried shrimp is usually cooked in vegetable oil Types of fat include vegetable oils, animal products such as butter and lard, as well as fats from grains, including corn and flax oils, Fats can reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water, and are often used to conduct high heat to other ingredients, such as in frying or sautéing, Proteins Main article: Protein_(nutrient) Various raw meats Red kidney beans contain protein, Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk, eggs and egg whites, contains substantial amounts of protein, Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts, Mushrooms have high protein content, Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids, When proteins are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change texture, In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable – meat becomes cooked and is more friable and less flexible, In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites, The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component in baking cakes, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue, Vitamins and minerals Main articles: Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are materials required for normal metabolism but which the body cannot manufacture itself and which must therefore come from external sources, Vitamins come from a number of sources including fresh fruit and vegetables (Vitamin C), carrots, liver (Vitamin A), cereal bran, bread, liver e ( B vitamins), fish liver oil (Vitamin D) and fresh green vegetables (Vitamin K), Many minerals are also essential in small quantities including iron, calcium, magnesium and sulphur; and in very small quantities copper, zinc and selenium, The micronutrients, minerals, and vitamins[11] in fruit and vegetables may be destroyed or eluted by cooking, Vitamin C is especially prone to oxidation during cooking and may be completely destroyed by protracted cooking,[12][not in citation given] Water Main article: Water Water is often used to cook foods such as noodles, Cooking often involves water, frequently present in other liquids, which is both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves, Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used is often based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising, and blanching, Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavor and ingredients – this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making, Methods There are very many methods of cooking, most of which have been known since antiquity, These include baking, roasting, frying, grilling, barbecuing, smoking, boiling, steaming and braising, A more recent innovation is microwaving, Various methods use differing levels of heat and moisture and vary in cooking time, The method chosen greatly affects the end result because some foods are more appropriate to some methods than others, Some major hot cooking techniques include: A Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables, and yorkshire pudding A Braised pot roast dish A diagram of a propane smoker used to prepare smoked foods, Roasting Roasting – Barbecuing – Grilling/Broiling – Rotisserie – Searing Baking Baking – Baking Blind- Flashbaking Boiling Boiling – Blanching – Braising – Coddling – Double steaming – Infusion – Poaching – Pressure cooking – Simmering – Smothering – Steaming – Steeping – Stewing – Vacuum flask cooking Frying Fry – Deep frying – Hot salt frying – Hot sand frying – Pan frying – Pressure frying – Sautéing – Stir frying Smoking Smoking Cooking and health Food safety Main article: Food safety Ddeokbokki is a Korean dish consisting of sautéed rice cakes with vegetables and pork, A cook sautees onions and green peppers on a skillet When heat is used in the preparation of food, it can kill or inactivate potentially harmful organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as various parasites such as tapeworms and Toxoplasma gondii, Food poisoning and other illness from uncooked or poorly-prepared food may be caused by bacteria such as pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Campylobacter, viruses such as noroviruses, and protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Parasites may be introduced through salad, meat that is uncooked or done rare, and unboiled water, The sterilizing effect of cooking will depend on temperature, cooking time, and technique used, However, some bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum or Bacillus cereus, can form spores that survive cooking, which then germinate and regrow after the food has cooled, It is therefore recommended that cooked food should not be reheated more than once to avoid repeated growths that allow the bacteria to proliferate to dangerous level,[13] Cooking prevents many foodborne illnesses that would otherwise occur if the food was eaten raw, Cooking also increases the digestibility of some foods such as grains or lactose because most foods, when raw, are inedible, and some are poisonous, For example kidney beans are toxic when raw or improperly cooked, due to the presence of phytohaemagglutinin which can be inactivated after cooking for at least ten minutes at 100 °C,[14] Slow cooker however may not reach the desired temperature and cases of poisoning from red beans cooked in slow cooker have been reported, Preparation, handling, and storage of food are other considerations in food safety, According to the USDA, the temperature range from 40 °F to 140 °F (4 to 60 °C), is the "Danger zone" where bacteria is likely to proliferate, food therefore should not be stored in this temperature range, Washing of hands and surfaces, and avoidance of cross-contamination are good practices in food safety,[15] Food prepared on plastic cutting boards may be less likely to harbor bacteria than wooden ones,[16] other research however suggested otherwise,[17] Washing and sanitizing cutting boards is highly recommended, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood, Hot water and soap followed by a rinse with an diluted antibacterial cleaner, or a trip through a dishwasher with a "sanitize" cycle, are effective methods for reducing the risk of illness due to contaminated cooking implements,[17] Effects on nutritional content of food See also: Raw foodism A raw tomato sauce with olives, celery, spinach and walnuts on zucchini noodles, A raw vegan lunch Proponents of Raw foodism argue that cooking food increases the risk of some of the detrimental effects on food or health, They point out that the cooking of vegetables and fruit containing vitamin C both elutes the vitamin into the cooking water and degrades the vitamin through oxidation, Peeling vegetables can also substantially reduce the vitamin C content, especially in the case of potatoes where most vitamin C is in the skin,[18] However, research using an artificial gut has shown that in the specific case of carotenoids a greater proportion is absorbed from cooked vegetables than from raw vegetables,[12] German research in 2003 showed significant benefits in reducing breast cancer risk when large amounts of raw vegetable matter are included in the diet, The authors attribute some of this effect to heat-labile phytonutrients,[19] Sulforaphane, which may be found in vegetables such as broccoli, has been shown to be protective against prostate cancer, however, much of it is destroyed when the vegetable is boiled,[20] Cooking and carcinogens In a human epidemiological analysis by Richard Doll and Richard Peto in 1981, diet was estimated to cause a certain percentage amount of cancers,[21] Some of these cancers may be caused by carcinogens in food generated during cooking process, although it is often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase cancer risk, Many food, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both carcinogens and anticarcinogens,[22] Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking meat at high temperature creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans, Researchers at the National Cancer Institute found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done,[23] While eating meat raw may be the only way to avoid HCAs fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates "negligible amounts" of HCAs, Also, microwaving meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90%,[23] Nitrosamines, present in processed and cooked foods, have also been noted as being carcinogenic, being linked to colon cancer, Research has shown that grilling, barbecuing and smoking meat and fish increases levels of carcinogenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), In Europe, grilled meat and smoked fish generally only contribute a small proportion of dietary PAH intake since they are a minor component of diet – most intake comes from cereals, oils and fats,[24] However, in the US, grilled/barbecued meat is the second highest contributor of the mean daily intake of benzo[a]pyrene at 21% after ‘bread, cereal and grain’ at 29%,[24] Baking, grilling or broiling food, especially starchy foods, until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen,[25] Other health issues Cooking dairy products may reduce a protective effect against colon cancer, Researchers at the University of Toronto suggest that ingesting uncooked or unpasteurized dairy products (see also Raw milk) may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer,[26] Mice and rats fed uncooked sucrose, casein, and beef tallow had one-third to one-fifth the incidence of microadenomas as the mice and rats fed the same ingredients cooked,[27][28] This claim, however, is contentious, According to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States, health benefits claimed by raw milk advocates do not exist, "The small quantities of antibodies in milk are not absorbed in the human intestinal tract," says Barbara Ingham, PhD, associate professor and extension food scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, "There is no scientific evidence that raw milk contains an anti-arthritis factor or that it enhances resistance to other diseases,"[29] Heating sugars with proteins or fats can produce Advanced glycation end products ("glycotoxins"),[30] These have been linked to ageing and health conditions such as diabetes and causing obesity, Deep fried food in restaurants may contain high level of trans fat which is known to increase level of low-density lipoprotein that may increase risk of heart diseases and other conditions, However, many fast food chains have now switched to trans-fat-free alternatives for deep-frying,[31] Science of cooking Main article: molecular gastronomy The application of scientific knowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy, This is a subdiscipline of food science, Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as Herve This (chemist), Nicholas Kurti (physicist), Peter Barham (physicist), Harold McGee (author), Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author), Heston Blumenthal (chef), Ferran Adria (chef), Robert Wolke (chemist, author) and Pierre Gagnaire (chef), Chemical processes central to cooking include the Maillard reaction – a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar and heat, Home-cooking vs, factory cooking Although cooking has traditionally been a process carried out informally in a home or around a communal fire, cooking is also often carried out outside of personal quarters, for example at restaurants, or schools, Bakeries were one of the earliest forms of cooking outside the home, and bakeries in the past often offered the cooking of pots of food provided by their customers as an additional service, In the present day, factory food preparation has become common, with many "ready-to-eat" foods being prepared and cooked in factories and home cooks using a mixture of scratch made, and factory made foods together to make a meal, "Home-cooking" may be associated with comfort food, and some commercially produced foods are presented through advertising or packaging as having been "home-cooked", regardless of their actual origin, Chicken with lemons on a large wooden cutting board, A restaurant kitchen in Munich, Germany (Haxnbauer restaurant), A kitchen in Beijing, China with an assortment of foods, There are lots of different kinds of different cultural cooking such as French food,Italian food and many other foods from different types of people and cultures ----- Terms and phrases 75 seconds Adduction ankle weights Back Extension BACK HIP EXTENSORS barbell benefits butt and legs calories carbohydrate chest cooking cooking spray diet dumbbells exer Exercises Sets Reps eyes focused straight fat grams fat-free fiber first flexion Focus your mind focused straight ahead foot position FRONT KNEE EXTENSORS front leg Fruit GLUTES goals Grain hamstrings HIP FLEXORS Leg Curls Leg Extension Leg Press Lift LOW RISK AREA low-fat lower back lower body Lunge Alternating Meal Large glass milk MODERATE RISK AREA move movement percent fat calories performed Post Squat Power Nutrition protein Push quadriceps rack range of motion Return to starting rotation routine seconds 90 seconds Sequence 1 refer Sets Reps Rest shin Side Lunge Smith Machine Snack specific Standing Heel Raises starting position strength training sugar tablespoon teaspoon thigh throughout the exercise tion TRAINER'S TIPS vegetables week whole grain workout yogurt . . .THANKS FOR LOOKING !!! 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RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world - these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines resistance and overspeed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina and endurance. After training with the ... morechute, your speed, explosiveness and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING RAD Sportz 48-inch Quality Speed Training Resistance Running Parachute Product Description: RAD Sportz continues to impress with their new running chutes. Now you can train like the top athletes of the world - these training chutes are used in the NBA, NFL, MLB, MLS, NHL, NCAA and in nearly every soccer program around the world. RAD Sportz's running chute combines resistance and overspeed running during the run - the two key elements of speed training. By design it provides the optimal resistance to slow the runner down and build strength, stamina and endurance. After training with the chute, your speed, explosiveness and acceleration will all improve. In addition, you will notice increased running speed and improved stride length. Of course, all of the aforementioned translates to improved performance on every play on the field, court or track, which is what you are LOOKING FOR.. What is IncludedRAD Sportz 48-inch Running Chute and FREE Carrying Case. 48-inch diameter, 20 lbs of resistance, Fully functional unit includes parachute and belt with hook and loop fasteners closure, hook and loop fasteners Quick Release for overspeed training, Adjustable- waist sizes 20-42 inches, Quick Release Strap provides easy release into overspeed, Top Quality MaterialsLight but strong, Mesh panels eliminate the tangling of strings found on other chute models, The panels provide stability to reduce shifting, Increase Training Excitement and motivation because you can feel yourself improving and running faster, Versatility- Can be used with sports skills building drills (football etc.) or drills involving change of direction and speed, Easily folds down to fit in the free carry case that will fit in any backpack. EquipmentResistance TrainingWeight Range11 - 20 lbsExact ColorBlue Note *All retailers not collecting sales tax from purchasers in Colorado, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, and Washington are required to give the following notice: Although we, as the seller, are not obligated to collect sales tax in your state, this purchase is subject to sales tax unless it is specifically exempt from taxation. This purchase in not exempt merely because it is made over the internet or by other remote means. Your state requires that you file a tax return at the end of the year reporting all of your purchases that were not taxed and pay tax on those purchases. Retailers that do not collect Colorado, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Vermont, or Washington sales tax, including ourselves, will provide you an end-of-year summary of your purchases to assist you in filing that report. You may contact your state’s Department of Revenue for details on how to file this return. For purchasers in Colorado, Louisiana, Vermont, and Washington please note that we are required by law to provide your state with a report of the total amount of all your purchases from us at the end of the year.
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Size: 142 * 142 cm (about 56 inches)Adjustable waistline: about 50-110 cmName: Sports resistance umbrella (soccer training essential supplies)Function: resistance training, improve explosive power, speed, and core strength.The kinematic resistance umbrella is designed and manufactured according to the principle of aerodynamics. It is widely used in sports training. The experimental results show that the resistance of the resistance umbrella is increasing with the increase of the speed. In the sports ... moretraining can be based on different sports and different levels of athletes choose different specifications resistance umbrella training, it can be widely used in track and field, ball, bicycle, speed skating, swimming and other projects in the training.Resistance umbrella can practice the speed at the same time practice strength, the perfect realization of the combined. In this training process, the resistance umbrella can help you improve the speed of movement, lower limb strength, and explosive force.The use of resistance umbrella training can effectively increase the athlete's resistance load, the athletes at the start to bring it conducive to the speed of play, with the increase in resistance, the athletes at a variety of speeds can be obtained relative to the maximum resistance load. Resistance umbrella can be used directly in the actual training of athletes, does not destroy the technical structure, which is particularly important in training. When you bring this resistance umbrella running because the air resistance will produce backward drag force, the faster you run, resulting in greater drag force, through this exercise, you can improve the acceleration ability to improve muscle endurance, To enhance the ability to adjust the direction of high-speed running.Before the training is a lot of tires, but the tire friction (resistance) will increase with the increase in speed, resistance umbrella will increase with the acceleration, tire training is not conducive to acceleration, because the start is the largest friction.
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MPN: Single Volume 3 DVD
Brand: Muscletech
☆BODYBUILDING DVD-PASSION - PAIN - PERFECTION-SECRETS OF THE PROS-VOL3-MUSCLE☆ In this final installiment in the Muscletech Trilogy of Bodybuilding, Jay Cutler, Johnnie Jackson, and Dexter Jackson, will blow the doors off the way you look at bodybuilding in this final part of the body building crash course! You'll also get the opporluntly to sit in on some of the most intensive round table discussions ever seen! Christian Boeving mediator series of discussions Jay Cutler, Chris Cormier, Branch Warren, ... moreJohnnir Jackson, and King Kamali!! You will also get tips on how to prepare for your first bodybuilding competition!. CONTENTS of Discussions 3 Crash Course — ----- SCENE I Train like a Pro! Christian Boeving hosts a series of round lisossitis in which Chris Cormier, Jay Culler, Johnnie Jackson, King Kamali, and Branch Warren let us into their world of weight training. SCENE 2 - How to Eat Like a Pro hot on the heels of how to train like a Pro, Chris Cormier, Jay Cutler, Johnnie Jackson, King Kamali, and Branch Warren talk bodybuilding another round table discussion. SCENE 3 - Pre-Contest Preparation Tips What goes on before a bodybuilder steps out on stage? how does he feel? What is he eating two weeks out? How is he training? All these questions and more are covered s Is asp hr1 weeks out? How is he training? All these questions and more are answered and roundtable discussion with Chris Cormier, Jay Cutler, Johnnie Jackson, King Kamali, and Branch Warren. SCENE 4 Everything Else You Wanted to Know about Team Muscletech. With training nutrition and pre-contest preparation put to bed, this section is all about what really makes these pros tick! It's time to find out the thoughts feelings and habits of Chris Cormier, Jay Cutler, Johnnie Jackson, King Kamali, and Branch Warren!!! DVD SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Physical exercise From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Workout) "Workout" and "Exercise" redirect here, For other uses, see Workout (disambiguation) and Exercise (disambiguation), A man runs in water A woman does weight training Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness, It is performed for various reasons, including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and merely enjoyment, Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity,[1][2] It may also help prevent stress and depression, help to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health generally, and can augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem,[3] Childhood obesity is a growing global concern,[4] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity, Some care providers call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of benefits that it can provide for many individuals,[5][6] In the United Kingdom two to four hours of light activity are recommended during working hours,[7] This includes walking and standing,[7] Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Health effects 2,1 Cardiovascular system 2,2 Immune system 2,3 Cancer 2,4 Brain function 2,5 Sleep 2,6 Excessive exercise 3 Mechanism of effects 4 Public health measures 5 Exercise trends 6 Nutrition and recovery 7 History 8 Other animals 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Classification[edit] Indian wrestler exercising, 1973 Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[8] Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting,[8] The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance,[9] Examples of aerobic exercise include cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distance training,[8] Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and tone muscles, as well as improve bone strength, balance, and coordination,[8] Examples of strength moves are push-ups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells,[8] Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, Interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength,[8][10] Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles,[8] Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber,[8] The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury,[8][11] Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracy, agility, power, and speed,[12] Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used,[citation needed] 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow, Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise),[citation needed] Health effects[edit] A review of correlational studies suggest that physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system, Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and quality of life,[13] According to the World Health Organization, lack of physical activity contributes to approximately 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of falls in the elderly, and 10% of breast cancer and colon cancer,[14] Not everyone benefits equally from exercise, There is tremendous variation in individual response to training; where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others can never augment endurance,[15][16] However, muscle hypertrophy from resistance training is primarily determined by diet and testosterone,[17] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population,[18][19] Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life,[20] Cardiovascular system[edit] The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented, There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness,[21] There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700 to 2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations, The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active, Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age), ,,, persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival, ,,, Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality,[22] Immune system[edit] Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness, Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve, Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence, However, another study did not find the effect, Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections, The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar, Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant,[23] Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners,[23] Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects, In individuals with heart disease, exercise interventions lower blood levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, an important cardiovascular risk marker,[24] The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect,[23] Cancer[edit] A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survivorship, According to the study results "There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality",[25] Epigenetic effects[edit] Physical exercise was correlated with a lower methylation frequency of two tumor suppressor genes, CACNA2D3 and L3MBTL,[26][27] Hypermethylation of CACNA2D3 is associated with gastric cancer, while hypermethylation of L3MBTL is associated with breast cancer, brain tumors and hematological malignancies,[26][27][28][29] A recent study indicates that exercise results in reduced DNA methylation at CpG sites on genes associated with breast cancer,[30] Cancer cachexia[edit] Physical exercise is becoming a widely accepted non-pharmacological intervention for the prevention and attenuation of cancer cachexia,[31] "Cachexia is a multiorganic syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by inflammation, body weight loss (at least 5%) and muscle and adipose tissue wasting",[32] The exercise-induced transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (see PPARGC1A), which suppresses FOXO and NF-κB dependent transcription during atrophy induced by fasting or denervation, may be a key intermediate responsible for the benficial antiatrophic effects of physical exercise on cancer cachexia,[33][34] The exercise-induced isoform PGC1α4, which can repress myostatin and induce IGF1 and hypertrophy, is a potential drug target for treatment of cancer cachexia,[35] Other factors, such as JUNB and SIRT1, that maintain skeletal muscle mass and promote hypertrophy are also induced with regular physical exercise,[36][37] Brain function[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise The following text needs to be harmonized with text in Neurobiological effects of physical exercise, (February 2015) Physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases,[38] Evidence suggests that it reduces the risk of developing dementia,[39] The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 30 years and examined the association between regular physical exercise and dementia, The study found that men who exercised regularly had a 59% reduction in dementia when compared to the men who didn't exercise,[40] In addition, a 2008 review of cognitive enrichment therapies (strategies to slow or reverse cognitive decline) concluded that "physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function",[41] In mice, exercise improves cognitive functioning via improvement of spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis,[42] In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it, Then, over the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists, They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory, Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial, But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response,[43] The mice who were forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes in only one area, According to an author of the study, "our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions,"[44] Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage,[45] There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain, Examples are as follows: increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain; increasing growth factors that help neurogenesis,[46] and promote synaptic plasticity[47] — possibly improving short and long term memory; increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin,[48] Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells,[49] Depression[edit] Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Antidepressant effect and Exercise-induced euphoria Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has pronounced long-term antidepressant effects[50][51][52][53] and can produce euphoria in the short-term,[54][55][56] Numerous systematic reviews suggest that regular aerobic exercise (at sufficient intensity and duration) has comparable antidepressant efficacy to standard pharmaceutical antidepressants in treating depression,[50][51][52][53] Consequently, current medical evidence supports the use of aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression,[50][51][52][53] The biomolecular basis for exercise-induced antidepressant effects is believed to be a result of increased neurotrophic factor signaling, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor,[51][57] Continuous exercise can produce short-term euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[54] β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[55] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog),[56][58][59] Other types of physical exercise have also been shown to help depression, An increasing issue, prenatal depression, has become more common among pregnant women, and has a negative effect on the mother as well as the developing fetus, Exercise, specifically yoga, has been shown to alleviate this type of depression,[60] In contrast, there is moderate evidence to suggest that engaging in sedentary behavior is linked to an increase in anxiety, However, additional research is needed in order to successfully measure anxiety alone, because of the close relationship it has with depression,[61] Sleep[edit] A 2010 review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia, The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep, There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep,[62] According to a 2005 study, exercise is the most recommended alternative to sleeping pills for resolving insomnia, Sleeping pills are more costly than to make time for a daily routine of staying fit, and may have dangerous side effects in the long run, Exercise can be a healthy, safe and inexpensive way to achieve more and better sleep,[63] Excessive exercise[edit] Too much exercise can be harmful, Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[64] and muscle tissue may develop slowly, Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities,[65][66][67] Specifically, high cardiac output has been shown to cause enlargement of the left and right ventricle volumes, increased ventricle wall thickness, and greater cardiac mass, These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls, During these processes, the protein troponin increases in the bloodstream, indicating cardiac muscle cell death and increased stress on the heart itself,[68] Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of “inappropriateâ€� varying according to the individual, For many activities, especially running and cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules, Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern,[69] whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern,[70][71] In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss, Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits,[72] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts, One sign of Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is suppressed immune function, with an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), An increased incidence of URTIs is also associated with high volume/intensity training, as well as with excessive exercise (EE), such as in a marathon,[73] Stopping excessive exercise suddenly may create a change in mood, Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations, While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging, This must be determined for each individual, Too much exercise may cause a woman to miss her periods, a symptom known as amenorrhea,[74] This is a very serious condition which indicates a woman is pushing her body beyond its natural boundaries,[75] Mechanism of effects[edit] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[76] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol, which causes many health problems, both physical and mental,[77] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals,[78] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 Max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality,[79] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training), Ventricular hypertrophy, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response to exercise, Public health measures[edit] Exercise in space: Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, works out at the Unity node of the International Space Station using the short bar of the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform pull-ups to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment Multiple component community-wide campaigns are frequently used in an attempt to increase a population's level of physical activity, A 2015 Cochrane review, however, did not find evidence supporting a benefit,[80] The quality of the underlying evidence was also poor,[80] Survery of brief interventions promoting physical activity found that they are cost-effective, although there are variations between studies,[81] Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels,[82] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise, These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity,[83] To identify which public health strategies are effective, a Cochrane overview of reviews is in preparation,[84] Physical exercise was said to decrease healthcare costs, increase the rate of job attendance, as well as increase the amount of effort women put into their jobs,[85] Children will mimic the behavior of their parents in relation to physical exercise, Parents can thus promote physical activity and limit the amount of time children spend in front of screens which may decrease the risk of childhood obesity,[86] Exercise trends[edit] Main article: Exercise trends Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[87] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits,[87] Personal lifestyle changes however can correct the lack of physical exercise, Research in 2015 indicates integrating mindfulness to physical exercise interventions increases exercise adherence, self-efficacy and also has positive effects both psychologically and physiologically,[88] Nutrition and recovery[edit] Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise, When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise,[89] History[edit] The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity, Marcus Cicero, around 65 BCE, stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor,"[90] Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century to realise the benefits of exercise, The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack that had 166,000 members in 1937,[91] However, the link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was only discovered in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris,[92][93] Dr, Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease,[93] This link had not previously been noted and was later confirmed by other researchers, Other animals[edit] Physical exercise has been shown to benefit a wide range of other mammals, as well as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird,[94] However, several studies have shown that lizards display no benefit from exercise, leading them to be termed "metabolically inflexible",[95] A number of studies of both rodents and humans have demonstrated that individual differences in both ability and propensity for exercise (i,e,, voluntary exercise) have some genetic basis,[96][97] See also[edit] Portal icon Health and fitness portal Portal icon Medicine portal Portal icon Society portal Portal icon Sports portal Main article: Outline of exercise Active living Behavioural change theories Exercise hypertension Exercise-induced nausea Exercise intensity Exercise intolerance Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Exercise-induced asthma Kinesiology Metabolic equivalent Supercompensation Physical fitness References[edit] Jump up ^ Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC; Hu; Manson; Rimm; Willett (2000), "Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women through Diet and Lifestyle", New England Journal of Medicine 343 (1): 16–22, doi:10,1056/NEJM200007063430103, PMID 10882764, Jump up ^ Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC; Manson; Stampfer; Colditz; Liu; Solomon; Willett (2001), "Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women", The New England Journal of Medicine 345 (11): 790–797, doi:10,1056/NEJMoa010492, PMID 11556298, Jump up ^ "Exercise", medical-dictionary,thefreedictionary,com, In turn citing: Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Copyright 2008, Citation: "Strengthening exercise increases muscle strength and mass, bone strength, and the body's metabolism, It can help attain and maintain proper weight and improve body image and self-esteem" Jump up ^ "WHO: Obesity and overweight", who,int, Jump up ^ American Association of Kidney Patients, "Physical Activity and Exercise: The Wonder Drug" Retrieved 29 November 2014 Jump up ^ "The miracle drug", Can Fam Physician 56: 407, 409, May 2010, PMC: 2868602, PMID 20463262, ^ Jump up to: a b Buckley, J, P,; Hedge, A,; Yates, T,; Copeland, R, J,; Loosemore, M,; Hamer, M,; Bradley, G,; Dunstan, D, W, (1 June 2015), "The sedentary office: a growing case for change towards better health and productivity, Expert statement commissioned by Public Health England and the Active Working Community Interest Company", British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10,1136/bjsports-2015-094618, ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (June 2006), "Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart" (PDF), U,S, Department of Health and Human Services, Jump up ^ Wilmore J,, Knuttgen H, (2003), "Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Improving Fitness for Health Benefits", The Physician and Sportsmedicine 31 (5): 45, doi:10,3810/psm,2003,05,367, Jump up ^ De Vos N,, Singh N,, Ross D,, Stavrinos T, (2005), "Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power During Explosive Resistance Training in Older Adults", The Journals of Gerontology 60A (5): 638–647, doi:10,1093/gerona/60,5,638, Jump up ^ O'Connor D,, Crowe M,, Spinks W, (2005), "Effects of static stretching on leg capacity during cycling", Turin 46 (1): 52–56, Jump up ^ "What Is Fitness?" (PDF), The CrossFit Journal, October 2002, p, 4, Retrieved 2010-09-12, Jump up ^ Gremeaux, V; Gayda, M; Lepers, R; Sosner, P; Juneau, M; Nigam, A (December 2012), "Exercise and longevity,", Maturitas 73 (4): 312–7, doi:10,1016/j,maturitas,2012,09,012, PMID 23063021, Jump up ^ Silberner, Joanne (June 7, 2010), "100 Years Ago, Exercise Was Blended Into Daily Life", npr,org, Retrieved 23 November 2010, Jump up ^ Bouchard C, An P, Rice T, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Gagnon J, Pérusse L, Leon AS, Rao DC; An; Rice; Skinner; Wilmore; Gagnon; Pérusse; Leon; Rao (September 1, 1999), "Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study", Journal of Applied Physiology 87 (3): 1003–1008, PMID 10484570, Retrieved 2007-07-17, Jump up ^ Kolata, Gina (February 12, 2002), "Why Some People Won't Be Fit Despite Exercise", The New York Times, Retrieved 2007-07-17, Jump up ^ Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL, Clarkson PM; Gordish-Dressman; Thompson; Price; Hoffman; Angelopoulos; Gordon; Moyna; Pescatello; Visich; Zoeller; Seip; Clarkson (June 2005), "Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37 (6): 964–972, PMID 15947721, Jump up ^ Brutsaert TD, Parra EJ (2006), "What makes a champion? Explaining variation in human athletic performance" (PDF), Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 151 (2–3): 109–123, doi:10,1016/j,resp,2005,12,013, PMID 16448865, Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-10, Retrieved 2007-07-17, Jump up ^ Geddes, Linda (2007-07-28), "Superhuman", New Scientist, pp, 35–41, Jump up ^ "Being active combats risk of functional problems", Jump up ^ Lumeng, Julie C, "Small-group physical education classes result in important health benefits," The Journal of pediatrics 148,3 (2006): 418-419, Jump up ^ Gerald F, Fletcher, "Statement on Exercise: Benefits and Recommendations for Physical Activity Programs for All Americans", ^ Jump up to: a b c Gleeson M (August 2007), "Immune function in sport and exercise", J, Appl, Physiol, 103 (2): 693–9, doi:10,1152/japplphysiol,00008,2007, PMID 17303714, Jump up ^ Swardfager W (2012), "Exercise intervention and inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis,", Am, Heart J, 163 (4): 666–76, doi:10,1016/j,ahj,2011,12,017, PMID 22520533, Jump up ^ Ballard-Barbash R, Friedenreich CM, Courneya KS, Siddiqi SM, McTiernan A, Alfano CM (2012), "Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Disease Outcomes in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review", JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 104 (11): 815–840, doi:10,1093/jnci/djs207, PMC: 3465697, PMID 22570317, ^ Jump up to: a b Yuasa Y, Nagasaki H, Akiyama Y, Hashimoto Y, Takizawa T, Kojima K, et al, (2009), "DNA methylation status is inversely correlated with green tea intake and physical activity in gastric cancer patients", Int, J, Cancer 124 (11): 2677–82, doi:10,1002/ijc,24231, PMID 19170207, ^ Jump up to: a b Zeng H, Irwin ML, Lu L, Risch H, Mayne S, Mu L, Deng Q, Scarampi L, Mitidieri M, Katsaros D, Yu H (May 2012), "Physical activity and breast cancer survival: an epigenetic link through reduced methylation of a tumor suppressor gene L3MBTL1", Breast Cancer Res Treat 133 (1): 127–35, doi:10,1007/s10549-011-1716-7, PMID 21837478, Jump up ^ Li J, Bench AJ, Piltz S, Vassiliou G, Baxter EJ, Ferguson-Smith AC, Green AR (Oct 2005), "L3mbtl, the mouse orthologue of the imprinted L3MBTL, displays a complex pattern of alternative splicing and escapes genomic imprinting", Genomics 86 (4): 489–94, doi:10,1016/j,ygeno,2005,06,012, PMID 16081246, Jump up ^ Bench AJ, Li J, Huntly BJ, Delabesse E, Fourouclas N, Hunt AR, Deloukas P, Green AR (Dec 2004), "Characterization of the imprinted polycomb gene L3MBTL, a candidate 20q tumour suppressor gene, in patients with myeloid malignancies", Br J Haematol 127 (5): 509–18, doi:10,1111/j,1365-2141,2004,05278,x, PMID 15566354, Jump up ^ Bryan AD, Magnan RE, Hooper AE, Harlaar N, Hutchison KE (2013), "Physical activity and differential methylation of breast cancer genes assayed from saliva: a preliminary investigation", Ann Behav Med 45 (1): 89–98, doi:10,1007/s12160-012-9411-4, PMID 23054940, Jump up ^ Lira FS, Neto JC, Seelaender M (Jun 2014), "Exercise training as treatment in cancer cachexia", Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 39 (6): 679–86, doi:10,1139/apnm-2013-0554, PMID 24797380, Jump up ^ Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argiles J, Bales C, Baracos V, Guttridge D, et al, (2008), "Cachexia: a new definition", Clin Nutr, 27: 793–799, doi:10,1016/j,clnu,2008,06,013, Jump up ^ Sandri M, et al, (2006), "PGC-1α protects skeletal muscle from atrophy by suppressing FoxO3 action and atrophy-specific gene transcription", Proc, Natl, Acad, Sci, USA 103: 16260–16265, doi:10,1073/pnas,0607795103, Jump up ^ Brault J, J,, Jespersen J, G,, Goldberg A, L, (2010), "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α or 1β overexpression inhibits muscle protein degradation, induction of ubiquitin ligases, and disuse atrophy", J, Biol, Chem, 285: 19460–19471, doi:10,1074/jbc,m110,113092, Jump up ^ Ruas J, L,; et al, (2012), "A PGC-1α isoform induced by resistance training regulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy", Cell 151: 1319–1331, doi:10,1016/j,cell,2012,10,050, Jump up ^ Vissing K, et al, (2013), "Effect of resistance exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on members of the st*rs signalling pathway", J, Physiol 591: 3749–3763, doi:10,1113/jphysiol,2012,249755, Jump up ^ Ferrara N, et al, (2008), "Exercise training promotes SIRT1 activity in aged rats", Rejuven, Res, 11: 139–150, doi:10,1089/rej,2007,0576, Jump up ^ Grondard C, Biondi O, Armand AS, Lécolle S, Della Gaspera B, Pariset C, Li H, Gallien CL, Vidal PP, Chanoine C, Charbonnier F (2005), "Regular Exercise Prolongs Survival in a Type 2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model Mouse", The Journal of Neuroscience (Abstract) 25 (33): 7615–7622, doi:10,1523/JNEUROSCI,1245-05,2005, PMID 16107648, Jump up ^ West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources Jump up ^ Elwood P, Galante J, Pickering J, et al, (2013), "Healthy Lifestyles Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases and Dementia: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort Study", PLOS ONE 8 (12): e81877, doi:10,1371/journal,pone,0081877, PMC: 3857242, PMID 24349147, Jump up ^ Hertzog C, Kramer AF, Wilson S, Lindenberger U, (2008), "Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be" (PDF), Psychological Science in the Public Interest 9 (1): 1–65, doi:10,1111/j,1539-6053,2009,01034,x, Retrieved 2009-07-07, Jump up ^ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH; Kempermann; Gage (1999), "Ontogeny Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus", Nature Neuroscience (Abstract) 2 (3): 266–70, doi:10,1038/6368, PMID 10195220, Jump up ^ Liu Yu-Fan, Chen Hsuin-ing, Wul Chao-Liang, Kuol Yu-Min, Yu Lung, Huang A-Min, Wu Fong-Sen, Chuang Jih-Ing, Jen Chauying J,; et al, (2009), "Differential effects of treadmill running and wheel running on spatial or aversive learning and memory: Roles of amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptotagmin I,", Journal of Physiology 587 (13): 3221–3231, doi:10,1113/jphysiol,2009,173088, Jump up ^ Gretchen Reynolds (16 September 2009), "Phys Ed: What Sort of Exercise Can Make You Smarter?", New York Times, Jump up ^ Could Exercise Regenerate Alcohol-Damaged Neurons? - Levin 41 (23): 20 - Psychiatr News Jump up ^ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH (March 1999), "Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus", Nat, Neurosci, 2 (3): 266–70, doi:10,1038/6368, PMID 10195220, Jump up ^ Hunsberger JG, Newton SS, Bennett AH, Duman CH, Russell DS, Salton SR, Duman RS (2007), "Antidepressant actions of the exercise-regulated gene VGF", Nat, Med, 13 (12): 1476–82, doi:10,1038/nm1669, PMID 18059283, Jump up ^ Parker-Pope, T, (2001), For a Healthy Brain You Really Need to Use Your Head -- Physical and Mental Exercise Can Stave Off Mental Decline, The Wall Street Journal November 26, 2001 Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database, Jump up ^ Edward McAuley,* Arthur F, Kramer, and Stanley J, Colcombe, E; Kramer, Arthur F; Colcombe, Stanley J (2004), "Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review" (PDF), BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, and IMMUNITY, 18 (2004): 214–220, doi:10,1016/j,bbi,2003,12,007, Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-16, Retrieved 2007-03-28, ^ Jump up to: a b c Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE (2013), "Exercise for depression", Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9: CD004366, doi:10,1002/14651858,CD004366,pub6, PMID 24026850, Exercise is moderately more effective than a control intervention for reducing symptoms of depression, but analysis of methodologically robust trials only shows a smaller effect in favour of exercise, When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion is based on a few small trials, ^ Jump up to: a b c d Mura G, Moro MF, Patten SB, Carta MG (2014), "Exercise as an add-on strategy for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a systematic review", CNS Spectr 19 (6): 496–508, doi:10,1017/S1092852913000953, PMID 24589012, Considered overall, the studies included in the present review showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants, ,,, Conclusions This is the first review to have focused on exercise as an add-on strategy in the treatment of MDD, Our findings corroborate some previous observations that were based on few studies and which were difficult to generalize,41,51,73,92,93 Given the results of the present article, it seems that exercise might be an effective strategy to enhance the antidepressant effect of medication treatments, Moreover, we hypothesize that the main role of exercise on treatment-resistant depression is in inducing neurogenesis by increasing BDNF expression, as was demonstrated by several recent studies, ^ Jump up to: a b c Josefsson T, Lindwall M, Archer T (2014), "Physical exercise intervention in depressive disorders: meta-analysis and systematic review", Scand J Med Sci Sports 24 (2): 259–272, doi:10,1111/sms,12050, PMID 23362828, Physical activity has also become increasingly and firmly associated with improvements in mental health and psychological well-being (Mutrie, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007), In particular, exercise is believed to be effective in preventing depression and also to significantly reduce depressive symptoms in clinical as well as in nonclinical populations (O'Neal et al,, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2007), Several correlational studies show that exercise is negatively related to depressive symptoms (e,g,, Galper et al,, 2006; Hassmén et al,, 2000), Moreover, a considerably large number of intervention studies have by now investigated the effect of various exercise programs on depression and the vast majority of them indicate that exercise significantly reduces depression (e,g,, Blumenthal et al,, 2007; Martinsen et al,, 1985; Singh et al,, 1997), ,,, To date, it is not possible to determine exactly how effective exercise is in reducing depression symptoms in clinical and nonclinical depressed populations, respectively, However, the results from the present meta-analysis as well as from seven earlier meta-analyses (North et al,, 1990; Craft & Landers, 1998; Lawlor & Hopker, 2001; Stathopoulou et al,, 2006; Mead et al,, 2009; Rethorst et al,, 2009; Krogh et al,, 2011) indicate that exercise has a moderate to large antidepressant effect, Some meta-analytic results (e,g,, Rethorst et al,, 2009) suggest that exercise may be even more efficacious for clinically depressed people, ,,, In short, our final conclusion is that exercise may well be recommended for people with mild and moderate depression who are willing, motivated, and physically healthy enough to engage in such a program, ^ Jump up to: a b c Rosenbaum S, Tiedemann A, Sherrington C, Curtis J, Ward PB (2014), "Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis", J Clin Psychiatry 75 (9): 964–974, doi:10,4088/JCP,13r08765, PMID 24813261, This systematic review and meta-analysis found that physical activity reduced depressive symptoms among people with a psychiatric illness, The current meta-analysis differs from previous studies, as it included participants with depressive symptoms with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses (except dysthymia and eating disorders), ,,, This review provides strong evidence for the antidepressant effect of physical activity; however, the optimal exercise modality, volume, and intensity remain to be determined, ,,, Conclusion Few interventions exist whereby patients can hope to achieve improvements in both psychiatric symptoms and physical health simultaneously without significant risks of adverse effects, Physical activity offers substantial promise for improving outcomes for people living with mental illness, and the inclusion of physical activity and exercise programs within treatment facilities is warranted given the results of this review, ^ Jump up to: a b Tantimonaco M, Ceci R, Sabatini S, Catani MV, Rossi A, Gasperi V, Maccarrone M (2014), "Physical activity and the endocannabinoid system: an overview", Cell, Mol, Life Sci, 71 (14): 2681–2698, doi:10,1007/s00018-014-1575-6, PMID 24526057, The traditional view that PA engages the monoaminergic and endorphinergic systems has been challenged by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), composed of endogenous lipids, their target receptors, and metabolic enzymes, Indeed, direct and indirect evidence suggests that the ECS might mediate some of the PA-triggered effects throughout the body, ,,, the evidence that PA induces some of the psychotropic effects elicited by the Cannabis sativa active ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, Fig, 1), like bliss, euphoria, and peacefulness, strengthened the hypothesis that endocannabinoids (eCBs) might mediate, at least in part, the central and peripheral effects of exercise [14], ,,, To our knowledge, the first experimental study aimed at investigating the influence of PA on ECS in humans was carried out in 2003 by Sparling and coworkers [63], who showed increased plasma AEA content after 45 min of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill or cycle ergometer, Since then, other human studies have shown increased blood concentrations of AEA ,,, A dependence of the increase of AEA concentration on exercise intensity has also been documented, Plasma levels of AEA significantly increased upon 30 min of moderate exercise (heart rate of 72 and 83 %), but not at lower and significantly higher exercise intensities, where the age-adjusted maximal heart rate was 44 and 92 %, respectively ,,, Several experimental data support the hypothesis that ECS might, at least in part, explain PA effects on brain functions, because: (1) CB1 is the most abundant GPCR in the brain participating in neuronal plasticity [18]; (2) eCBs are involved in several brain responses that greatly overlap with the positive effects of exercise; (3) eCBs are able to cross the blood–brain barrier [95]; and (4) exercise increases eCB plasma levels [64–67], ^ Jump up to: a b Dinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD (2011), "Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression", Ir J Med Sci 180 (2): 319–325, doi:10,1007/s11845-010-0633-9, PMID 21076975, According to the 'endorphins hypothesis', exercise augments the secretion of endogenous opioid peptides in the brain, reducing pain and causing general euphoria, ,,, Based upon a large effect size, the results confirmed the endorphins hypothesis demonstrating that exercise leads to an increased secretion of endorphins which, in turn, improved mood states, β-Endorphin, an endogenous μ-opioid receptor selective ligand, has received much attention in the literature linking endorphins and depression or mood states, ,,, exercise of sufficient intensity and duration can increase circulating β-endorphin levels, ,,, Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that exercise and physical activity increased β-endorphin levels in plasma with positive effects on mood, Interestingly, the researchers reported that, independently of sex and age, dynamic anaerobic exercises increased β-endorphin, while resistance and aerobic exercises seem to only have small effects on β-endorphins, ,,, The results showed that mood tends to be higher in a day an individual exercises as well as that daily activity and exercise overall are strongly linked with mood states, In line with these findings, a recent study showed that exercise significantly improved mood states in non-exercises, recreational exercisers, as well as marathon runners, More importantly, the effects of exercise on mood were twofold in recreational exercisers and marathon runners, ^ Jump up to: a b Szabo A, Billett E, Turner J (2001), "Phenylethylamine, a possible link to the antidepressant effects of exercise?", Br J Sports Med 35 (5): 342–343, doi:10,1136/bjsm,35,5,342, PMC: 1724404, PMID 11579070, The 24 hour mean urinary concentration of phenylacetic acid was increased by 77% after exercise, ,,, These results show substantial increases in urinary phenylacetic acid levels 24 hours after moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise, As phenylacetic acid reflects phenylethylamine levels3 , and the latter has antidepressant effects, the antidepressant effects of exercise appear to be linked to increased phenylethylamine concentrations, Furthermore, considering the structural and pharmacological analogy between amphetamines and phenylethylamine, it is conceivable that phenylethylamine plays a role in the commonly reported "runners high" thought to be linked to cerebral β-endorphin activity, The substantial increase in phenylacetic acid excretion in this study implies that phenylethylamine levels are affected by exercise, ,,, A 30 minute bout of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise increases phenylacetic acid levels in healthy regularly exercising men, The findings may be linked to the antidepressant effects of exercise, Jump up ^ Erickson KI, Miller DL, Roecklein KA (2012), "The aging hippocampus: interactions between exercise, depression, and BDNF", Neuroscientist 18 (1): 82–97, doi:10,1177/1073858410397054, PMC: 3575139, PMID 21531985, Late adulthood is associated with increased hippocampal atrophy and dysfunction, ,,, However, there is strong evidence that decreased BDNF is associated with age-related hippocampal dysfunction, memory impairment, and increased risk for depression, whereas increasing BDNF by aerobic exercise appears to ameliorate hippocampal atrophy, improve memory function, and reduce depression, ,,, For example, longitudinal studies have reported between 1% and 2% annual hippocampal atrophy in adults older than 55 years without dementia ,,, Over a nine-year period, greater amounts of physical activity in the form of walking are associated with greater gray matter volume in several regions including prefrontal, temporal, and hippocampal areas, ,,, The prefrontal cortex and hippocampus deteriorate in late adulthood, preceding and leading to deficits in executive and memory function, We examined in this review the evidence that age-related changes in BDNF might at least partially explain hippocampal atrophy and increased risk for memory impairment, We can conclude that 1) decreases in BDNF protein expression are associated with poorer hippocampal function and increased rates of geriatric depression and AD, ,,, 3) Aerobic exercise enhances executive and memory function and reduces hippocampal atrophy in late adulthood, and this may be partially mediated through a BDNF pathway, Jump up ^ Lindemann L, Hoener MC (2005), "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family", Trends Pharmacol, Sci, 26 (5): 274–281, doi:10,1016/j,tips,2005,03,007, PMID 15860375, The pharmacology of TAs might also contribute to a molecular understanding of the well-recognized antidepressant effect of physical exercise [51], In addition to the various beneficial effects for brain function mainly attributed to an upregulation of peptide growth factors [52,53], exercise induces a rapidly enhanced excretion of the main β-PEA metabolite β-phenylacetic acid (b-PAA) by on average 77%, compared with resting control subjects [54], which mirrors increased β-PEA synthesis in view of its limited endogenous pool half-life of ~30 s [18,55], Jump up ^ Berry MD (2007), "The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases", Rev Recent Clin Trials 2 (1): 3–19, doi:10,2174/157488707779318107, PMID 18473983, It has also been suggested that the antidepressant effects of exercise are due to an exercise-induced elevation of PE [151], Jump up ^ Gong, Hong; Ni, Chenxu; Shen, Xiaoliang; Wu, Tengyun; Jiang, Chunlei (2015-02-05), "Yoga for prenatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis", BMC Psychiatry 15 (1), doi:10,1186/s12888-015-0393-1, PMC: 4323231, PMID 25652267, Jump up ^ Teychenne, Megan; Costigan, Sarah A; Parker, Kate 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PMID 19568199, Jump up ^ Wisløff U, Ellingsen Ø, Kemi OJ; Ellingsen; Kemi (July 2009), "High=Intensity Interval Training to Maximize Cardiac Benefit of Exercise Taining?", Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 37 (3): 139–146, doi:10,1097/JES,0b013e3181aa65fc, PMID 19550205, ^ Jump up to: a b Baker, Philip R, A,; Francis, Daniel P,; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L,; Foster, Charles (2015-01-01), "Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity", The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: CD008366, doi:10,1002/14651858,CD008366,pub3, ISSN 1469-493X, PMID 25556970, Jump up ^ Gc, V; Wilson, EC; Suhrcke, M; Hardeman, W; Sutton, S; VBI Programme, Team (April 2016), "Are brief interventions to increase physical activity cost-effective? A systematic review,", British journal of sports medicine 50 (7): 408–17, PMID 26438429, Jump up ^ Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howze EH, Powell KE, Stone EJ, Rajab MW, Corso P (May 2002), "The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity, A systematic review", Am J Prev Med 22 (4 Suppl): 73–107, doi:10,1016/S0749-3797(02)00434-8, PMID 11985936, Jump up ^ Durán, Víctor Hugo, "Stopping the rising tide of chronic diseases Everyone's Epidemic", Pan American Health Organization, paho,org, Retrieved January 10, 2009, Jump up ^ Baker, Philip RA; Dobbins, Maureen; Soares, Jesus; Francis, Daniel P; Weightman, Alison L; Costello, Joseph T (2015-01-06), Public health interventions for increasing physical activity in children, adolescents and adults: an overview of systematic reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, doi:10,1002/14651858,cd011454, ISSN 1465-1858, Jump up ^ Reed, Jennifer L; Prince, Stephanie A; Cole, Christie A; Fodor, J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Tulloch, Heather E; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D (2014-12-19), "Workplace physical activity interventions and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity levels among working-age women: a systematic review protocol", Systematic Reviews 3 (1), doi:10,1186/2046-4053-3-147, PMC: 4290810, PMID 25526769, Jump up ^ Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris (2015-03-19), "Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review", Journal of Obesity 2015: 1–23, doi:10,1155/2015/546925, PMC: 4383435, PMID 25874123, ^ Jump up to: a b "WHO: Obesity and overweight", World Health Organization, Archived from the original on December 18, 2008, Retrieved January 10, 2009, Jump up ^ Kennedy AB, Resnick PB (May 2015), "Mindfulness and Physical Activity", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 9: 3221–223, doi:10,1177/1559827614564546, Jump up ^ Kimber N,, Heigenhauser G,, Spriet L,, Dyck D, (2003), "Skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism during recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise in humans", American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 548 (3): 919–927, doi:10,1113/jphysiol,2002,031179, Jump up ^ "Quotes About Exercise Top 10 List", Jump up ^ "The Fitness League History", The Fitness League, Archived from the original on July 29, 2009, Retrieved 8 April 2015, Jump up ^ Kuper, Simon (11 September 2009), "The man who invented exercise", Financial Times, Retrieved 12 September 2009, ^ Jump up to: a b Morris JN, Heady JA, Raffle PA, Roberts CG, Parks JW (1953), "Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work", Lancet 265 (6795): 1053–7, doi:10,1016/S0140-6736(53)90665-5, PMID 13110049, Jump up ^ Owerkowicz T, Baudinette RV (2008), "Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus)", Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 150 (2): 211–6, doi:10,1016/j,cbpa,2008,04,594, PMID 18504156, Jump up ^ Garland T, Else PL, Hulbert AJ, Tap P (1987), "Effects of endurance training and captivity on activity metabolism of lizards", Am, J, Physiol, 252 (3 Pt 2): R450–6, PMID 3826409, Jump up ^ Garland T, Schutz H, Chappell MA, Keeney BK, Meek TH, Copes LE, Acosta W, Drenowatz C, Maciel RC, van Dijk G, Kotz CM, Eisenmann JC (2011), "The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives", J, Exp, Biol, 214 (Pt 2): 206–29, doi:10,1242/jeb,048397, PMC: 3008631, PMID 21177942, Jump up ^ Kelly SA, Pomp D (June 2013), "Genetic determinants of voluntary exercise", Trends Genet, 29 (6): 348–57, doi:10,1016/j,tig,2012,12,007, PMC: 3665695, PMID 23351966, Further reading[edit] Donatelle, Rebecca J, (2005), Health, The Basics (6th ed,), San Francisco: Pearson Education, ISBN 0-8053-2852-1, Hardman A, Stensel D (2009), Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-42198-0, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, Paffenbarger RS; Haskell; Leon; Jacobs Jr; Montoye; Sallis; Paffenbarger Jr (1993), "Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25 (1): 71–80, doi:10,1249/00005768-199301000-00011, PMID 8292105, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, O'Brien WL, Bassett DR, Schmitz KH, Emplaincourt PO, Jacobs DR, Leon AS; Haskell; Whitt; Irwin; Swartz; Strath; O'Brien; Bassett Jr; Schmitz; Emplaincourt; Jacobs Jr; Leon (2000), "Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities", Med Sci Sports Exerc 32 (9 Suppl): S498–504, doi:10,1097/00005768-200009001-00009, PMID 10993420, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS; Haskell; Herrmann; Meckes; Bassett Jr; Tudor-Locke; Greer; Vezina; Whitt-Glover; Leon (2011), "2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values", Med Sci Sports Exerc 43 (8): 1575–81, doi:10,1249/MSS,0b013e31821ece12, PMID 21681120, Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett Jr DR, Tudor-Locke C, Greer JL, Vezina J, Whitt-Glover MC, Leon AS, The Compendium of Physical Activities Tracking Guide, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing & Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Retrieved [date] from the World Wide Web, https://sites,google,com/site/compendiumofphysicalactivities/ External links[edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Exercise Look up exercise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary, Media related to Fitness training at Wikimedia Commons MedLinePlus's Topic on Exercise and Physical Fitness Science Daily's reference on Physical Exercise Guidance on the promotion and creation of physical environments that support increased levels of physical activity,"Physical activity and the environment", [hide] v t e Physical exercise Types Aerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise Stretching Walking Jogging Yoga Swimming Strength training Bodyweight exercise Weight training Sport See also Category:Physical exercise Exercise equipment Exercise physiology Neurobiological effects of physical exercise Categories: Physical exerciseSelf care --------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Physical fitness From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources, Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can, Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed, (December 2014) Rod of Asclepius2,svg Physical fitness can be achieved through exercise, Photo shows Rich Froning Jr, – four-time winner of "Fittest Man on Earth" title, Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities, Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous Physical exercise, physical activity,[2] and sufficient rest,[3] Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue, However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations,[4] Contents [hide] 1 Fitness 2 Activity guidelines 3 Training 3,1 High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) 3,2 Cardiovascular training 4 Effects 4,1 Controlling blood pressure 4,2 Cancer prevention 4,3 Inflammation 4,4 Immune system 4,5 Cardiovascular disease prevention 4,6 Weight control 4,7 Neuropsychological effects 4,8 Menopause and physical fitness 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Fitness[edit] Fitness is defined[by whom?] as the quality of being suitable to perform a particular task, Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten,[5] Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations, This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries, Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to personnel who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i,e, strength or endurance, A holistic definition of fitness is described by Greg Glassman in the CrossFit journal as an increased work capacity across broad times and modal domains; mastery of several attributes of fitness including strength, endurance, power, speed, balance and coordination and being able to improve the amount of work done in a given time with any of these domains,[6] A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training, A woman performs plank exercise for strengthening of muscles A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills,[7] and on age-[8] or health-related needs such as bone health,[9] Many sources[10] also cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness, This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness, Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging,[11] Working out can also help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals,[12] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[13] Activity guidelines[edit] The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, This publication suggests that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically, For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes (two hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably, it should be spread throughout the week, For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity, Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount, Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits,[14] Training[edit] Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service, Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports, Examples are: 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training, Middle distance running: athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training, The hard working muscles are at their peak for a longer period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time,[15] Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum, Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job,[16] Members of armed forces will often be required to pass a formal fitness test – for example soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT),[17] Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles, The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races, Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete, This is because sand collapses beneath the foot softening the landing, Sand training is an effective way to lose weight and become fit as its proven you need more effort (one and a half times more) to run on the soft sand than on a hard surface,[18] Aquajogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones, The water supplies minimal impact[clarification needed] to muscles and bones which is good for those recovering from injury, Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise (the deeper you are the greater the force needed to pull your leg through),[19] Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U,S, military base, 2011 Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer's start,[20] In order for physical fitness to benefit the health of an individual, an unknown response in the person called a stimulus will be triggered by the exertion, When exercise is performed with the correct amount of intensity, duration and frequency, a significant amount of improvement can occur, The person may overall feel better but the physical effects on the human body take weeks or months to notice and possibly years for full development, For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue, To continue improvements, this demand must eventually increase little over an extended period of time, This sort of exercise training has three basic principles: overload, specificity, and progression, These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity,[21] High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)[edit] High Intensity Interval Training consists of repeated, short bursts of exercise, completed at a high level of intensity, These sets of intense activity are followed by a predetermined time of rest or low intensity activity,[22] Studies have shown that exercising at a higher intensity has increased cardiac benefits for humans, compared to when exercising at a low or moderate level,[23] When your workout consists of an HIIT session, your body has to work harder to replace the oxygen it lost, Research into the benefits of HIIT have revealed that it can be very successful for reducing fat, especially around the abdominal region, Furthermore, when compared to continuous moderate exercise, HIIT proves to burn more calories and increase the amount of fat burned post- HIIT session,[24] Lack of time is one of the main reasons stated for not exercising; HIIT is a great alternative for those people because the duration of an HIIT session can be as short as 10 minutes, making it much quicker than conventional workouts,[25] Cardiovascular training[edit] This section does not cite any sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (December 2014) Cardiovascular capacity can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize,[26] Cardiorespiratory training involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption, This form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person, Also, it helps increase stamina, Examples are: Jogging – Running at a steady and gentle pace, This form of exercise is great for maintaining weight, Elliptical Training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints, This form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips, knees and ankles, Walking – Moving at a fairly regular pace for a short, medium or long distance, Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offers a numerous amount of different workout plans, One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between running and walking, Typically warm up first by walking and then switch off between walking for three minutes and running for three minutes, Swimming – Using the arms and legs to keep oneself afloat and moving either forwards or backwards, This is a good full body exercise for those who are looking to strengthen their core while improving cardiovascular endurance, Cycling – Riding a bicycle typically involves longer distances than walking or jogging, This is another low stress exercise on the joints and is great for improving leg strength,[27] Effects[edit] Controlling blood pressure[edit] Physical fitness has proven to result in positive effects on the body's blood pressure because staying active and exercising regularly builds up a stronger heart, The heart is the main organ in charge of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, Engaging in a physical activity will create a rise in blood pressure, once the activity is stopped, however, the individual’s blood pressure will return to normal, The more physical activity that one engages in, the easier this process becomes, resulting in a more ‘fit’ individual,[28] Through regular physical fitness, the heart does not have to work as hard to create a rise in blood pressure, which lowers the force on the arteries, and lowers the over all blood pressure,[29] Cancer prevention[edit] Centers for disease control and prevention provide lifestyle guidelines of maintaining a balanced diet and engaging in physical activity to reduce the risk of disease, The WCRF/ American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published a list of recommendations that reflect the evidence they have found through consistency in fitness and dietary factors that directly relate to Cancer prevention, The WCRF/AICR recommendations include the following: "Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight Each week, adults should engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity Children should engage in at least one hour of moderate or vigorous physical activity each week Be physically active for at least thirty minutes every day Avoid sugar, limit the consumption of energy packed foods Balance your diet with a variety of vegetables, grains, fruits, legumes, etc, Limit sodium intake, the consumption of red meats and the consumption of processed meats Limit alcoholic drinks to two for men and one for women a day"[30] These recommendations are also widely supported by the American Cancer Society, The guidelines have been evaluated and individuals that have higher guideline adherence scores substantially reduce cancer risk as well as help towards control with a multitude of chronic health problems, Regular physical activity is a factor that helps reduce an individual’s blood pressure and improves cholesterol levels, two key components that correlate with heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes,[31] The American Cancer Society encourages the public to "adopt a physically active lifestyle" by meeting the criteria in a variety of physical activities such as hiking, swimming, circuit training, resistance raining, lifting, etc, It is understood that cancer is not a disease that can be cured by physical fitness alone, however because it is a multifactorial disease, physical fitness is a controllable prevention, The large associations tied with being physically fit and reduced cancer risk are enough to provide a strategy to reduce cancer risk,[30] The American Cancer Society assorts different levels of activity ranging from moderate to vigorous to clarify the recommended time spent on a physical activity, These classifications of physical activity consider the intentional exercise and basic activities done on a daily basis and give the public a greater understanding by what fitness levels suffice as future disease prevention, Inflammation[edit] Studies have shown an association between increased physical activity and reduced inflammation,[32] It produces both a short-term inflammatory response and a long-term anti-inflammatory effect,[33] Physical activity reduces inflammation in conjunction with or independent of changes in body weight,[34] However, the mechanisms linking physical activity to inflammation are unknown, Immune system[edit] Physical activity boosts the immune system, This is dependent on the concentration of endogenous factors (such as sex hormones, metabolic hormones and growth hormones), body temperature, blood flow, hydration status and body position,[35] Physical activity has shown to increase the levels of natural killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, complements, cytokines, antibodies and T cytotoxic cells,[36][37] However, the mechanism linking physical activity to immune system is not fully understood, Cardiovascular disease prevention[edit] Physical activity affects one’s blood pressure, cholesterol levels, blood lipid levels, blood clotting factors and the strength of blood vessels, All factors that directly correlate to cardiovascular disease, It also improves the body’s use of insulin, People who are at risk for diabetes, Type 2 (insulin resistant) especially, benefit greatly from physical activity because it activates a better usage of insulin and protects the heart, Those who develop diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, In a study where a sample of around ten thousand adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, physical activity and metabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia were assessed, The study adjusted basic confounders with moderate/vigorous physical activity and the relation with CVD mortality, The results displayed physical activity being associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality that was independent of traditional metabolic risk factors, The American Heart Association recommendations include the same findings as provided in the WCRF/ AICR recommendations list for people who are healthy, In regards to people with lower blood pressure or cholesterol, the association recommends that these individuals aim for around forty minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity around three or four times a week,[38] Weight control[edit] Achieving resilience through physical fitness promotes a vast and complex range of health related benefits, Individuals who keep up physical fitness levels generally regulate their distribution of body fat and stay away from obesity, Abdominal fat, specifically visceral fat, is most directly affected by engaging in aerobic exercise, Strength training has been known to increase the amount of lean muscle in the body, however it can also reduce body fat,[39] Sex steroid hormones, insulin, and an appropriate immune response are factors that mediate metabolism in relation to the abdominal fat, Therefore, physical fitness provides weight control through regulation of these bodily functions,[40] Neuropsychological effects[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Long-term effects Regular exercise is effective for preventing the age-related decline in cognition and improving overall neuropsychological function, The increased synthesis of neurotrophic factors in the body and brain and the resulting neurogenesis in various brain structures is largely responsible for these effects, Exercise also has persistent antidepressant effects and has been found to serve as both a means to prevent and treat drug addictions, particularly psychostimulant addictions, Menopause and physical fitness[edit] Menopause is the term that is used to refer to the stretch of both before and after a woman's last menstrual cycle, there are an instrumental amount of symptoms connected to menopause, most of which can affect the quality of life of the women involved in this stage of her life, One way to reduce the severity of the symptoms is exercise and keeping a healthy level of fitness, Pre or during menopause as the women body changes there can be physical, physiological or internal changes to the body, These changes can be prevented or the reduced with the use of regular exercise, these changes include;[41] Prevention of weight gain: around menopause women tend to lose their muscle mass and have it replaced with abdominal fat, Slight increases in physical exercise can help to prevent this, Reduce the risk of breast cancer: due to the weight loss from regular exercise it may offer protection from breast cancer, Strengthen the bones of the body: Physical activity can slow the bone loss after menopause reducing the chance of bone fractures and osteoporosis, Reduce the risk of disease: Excess weight can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and the regular physical activity can counter these effects, Boost the mood: By being involved in regular activities it can improve the psychological health, this can be the case at any age and not only for times during or after menopause,[42] The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project provided evidence that showed over an eight-year time period 438 were followed, even though the physical activity was not associated with VMS in this cohort at the beginning, women that reported they were physically active everyday at the beginning were 49% less likely to have reported bothersome hot flushes, this in contrast to women who level of activity decreased were more likely to experience bothersome hot flushes,[43] See also[edit] Health Physical exercise Outline of exercise Personal trainer Fitness professional Bodybuilding References[edit] Jump up ^ Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville (2010), "Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle", Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 35 (6): 725–740, doi:10,1139/H10-079, Jump up ^ de Groot, Gudrun Cathrine Lindgren; Fagerström, Lisbeth (June 14, 2010), 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doi:10,1002/cncr,10244, ISSN 0008-543X, PMID 11900239, Jump up ^ Kruijsen-Jaarsma, Mirjam; Révész, Dóra; Bierings, Marc B,; Buffart, Laurien M,; Takken, Tim (2013-01-01), "Effects of exercise on immune function in patients with cancer: a systematic review", Exercise Immunology Review 19: 120–143, ISSN 1077-5552, PMID 23977724, Jump up ^ "Physical Activity and Blood Pressure," heart,org, Jump up ^ Westcott, W,L,; La Rosa Loud, R, (2014), "Strength for fat loss training", American Fitness 32 (1): 18–22, Jump up ^ Westerlind, K, C, (2003), "Physical activity and cancer prevention—mechanisms", Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 35 (11): 1834–40, doi:10,1249/01,MSS,0000093619,37805,B7, PMID 14600547, Jump up ^ Sternfeld, B,; Dugan, S, (2011), "Physical Activity and Health During the Menopausal Transition", Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 38 (3): 537, doi:10,1016/j,ogc,2011,05,008, PMID 21961719, Jump up ^ Pruthi, Sandhya (June 2013), "Fitness Tips for Menopause: Why fitness counts", Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Retrieved 11 April 2015, Jump up ^ Eschbach, Chris (January 12, 2012), "Exercise Recommendations for Menopause-Aged Women", American College of Sports Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, Retrieved 12 April 2015, Further reading[edit] 2004 September 21, Medical News Today, The Benefits of Physical Activity Brandon, Leigh (2009), Anatomy of Strength and Fitness Training for Speed, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-163363-5, External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fitness, Categories: Physical exercise --------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Pilates From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Contrology) This article is about the physical fitness system, For its inventor, see Joseph Pilates, For the Roman governor, see Pontius Pilate, For similar words, see Pilate (disambiguation) and Pilatus, This article needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (October 2009) Pilates 01,jpg Pilates (/p?'l??te?z/;[1] German: [pi'la?t?s]) is a physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates, and popular in many countries, including Germany,[2] the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom, As of 2005, there were 11 million people practicing the discipline regularly and 14,000 instructors in the United States alone,[3] Pilates called his method "Contrology" (from "control" and Greek -????a, -logia),[2] Contents 1 Benefits of Pilates 2 History 3 Principles 3,1 Concentration 3,2 Control 3,3 Centering 3,4 Flow or efficiency of movement 3,5 Precision 3,6 Breathing 4 Powerhouse 5 Precautions 6 Pilates in recent years 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading Benefits of Pilates Pilates is a body conditioning routine that may help build flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance in the legs, abdominals, arms, hips, and back,[4] It puts emphasis on spinal and pelvic alignment, breathing, and developing a strong core or center, and improving coordination and balance, Pilates' system allows for different exercises to be modified in range of difficulty from beginning to advanced, Intensity can be increased over time as the body conditions and adapts to the exercises,[4] Photo demonstrating a Pilates Teacher using verbal and tactile feedback to ensure proper form A 2013 systematic review found only inconclusive evidence that Pilates was beneficial to people with lower back pain,[5] History Pilates was designed by Joseph Pilates, a physical-culturist from Mönchengladbach, Germany, During the first half of the 20th century, he developed a system of exercises which were intended to strengthen the human mind and body, Pilates believed that mental and physical health are interrelated,[6] In his youth, he had practiced many of the physical training regimes available in Germany, and it was from these he developed his own work, It has clear connections with the physical culture of the late Nineteenth Century, such as the use of special apparatuses and claims that the exercises could cure ill health, It is also related to the tradition of "corrective exercise" or "medical gymnastics" as typified by Pehr Henrik Ling, Pilates published two books related to his training method: Your Health: A Corrective System of Exercising That Revolutionizes the Entire Field of Physical Education in 1934, and Return to Life Through Contrology in 1945, In common with early twentieth century physical culture, Pilates had an extremely high regard for the Greeks and the physical prowess demonstrated in their Gymnasium, His first students that went on to teach his methods and open studios, and most prominent include: Romana Kryzanowska, Kathy Grant, Jay Grimes, Ron Fletcher, Maja Wollman, Mary Bowen, Carola Treir, Bob Seed, Eve Gentry, Bruce King, Lolita San Miguel,[7] and Mary Pilates, Joseph's niece, Contemporary Pilates includes both the "Modern" Pilates and the "Classical/Traditional" Pilates, Modern Pilates is partly derived from the teaching of some first generation students, while Classical preserves and promotes the original work as Joseph Pilates taught it, The method was originally confined to the few and normally practised in a specialised studio, but with time this has changed and Pilates, in whatever form, can now be found in community centres, gyms, and physiotherapy rooms, and many other fitness services offered by Pilates-inspired businesses who have mixed their own understanding of Pilates with other disciplines, A variety of “modernâ€� schools of Pilates, heavily influenced by a physiotherapeutic approach to Pilates, have adapted the Pilates system in different ways for reasons unknown to and unapproved by its creator, Joseph Pilates, and by the contemporary schools of Authentic Pilates who continue teaching his method, Joseph Pilates died as sole master of his own method and still controlling the intellectual property of it, including his apparatus: a fact that only changed with the Lawsuit of October 2000,[8] Principles Philip Friedman and Gail Eisen, two students of Romana Kryzanowska, published the first modern book on Pilates, The Pilates Method of Physical and Mental Conditioning, in 1980 and in it they outlined six "principles of Pilates",[9] These have been widely adopted—and adapted—by the wider community, The original six principles were concentration, control, center, flow, precision, and breathing, Concentration Pilates demands intense focus: "You have to concentrate on what you're doing all the time, And you must concentrate on your entire body for smooth movements,"[10] This is not easy, but in Pilates the way that exercises are done is more important than the exercises themselves,[10] In 2006 at the Parkinson Center of the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon, the concentration factor of the Pilates method was being studied in providing relief from the degenerative symptoms of Parkinson's disease,[11] Control "Contrology" was Joseph Pilates' preferred name for his method and it is based on the idea of muscle control, "Nothing about the Pilates Method is haphazard, The reason you need to concentrate so thoroughly is so you can be in control of every aspect of every moment,"[12] All exercises are done with control with the muscles working to lift against gravity and the resistance of the springs and thereby control the movement of the body and the apparatus, "The Pilates Method teaches you to be in control of your body and not at its mercy,"[13] Centering For practitioners to control their bodies, they must have a starting place: the center, The center is the focal point of the Pilates Method,[14] Many Pilates teachers refer to the group of muscles in the center of the body—encompassing the abdomen, lower and upper back, hips, buttocks, and inner thighs—as the "powerhouse", All movement in Pilates should begin from the powerhouse and flow outward to the limbs, Flow or efficiency of movement Pilates aims for elegant sufficiency of movement, creating flow through the use of appropriate transitions, Once precision has been achieved, the exercises are intended to flow within and into each other in order to build strength and stamina, In other words, the Pilates technique asserts that physical energy exerted from the center should coordinate movements of the extremities: Pilates is flowing movement outward from a strong core,[15] Precision Precision is essential to correct Pilates: "concentrate on the correct movements each time you exercise, lest you do them improperly and thus lose all the vital benefits of their value",[16] The focus is on doing one precise and perfect movement, rather than many halfhearted ones, Pilates is here reflecting common physical culture wisdom: "You will gain more strength from a few energetic, concentrated efforts than from a thousand listless, sluggish movements",[17] The goal is for this precision to eventually become second nature, and carry over into everyday life as grace and economy of movement,[18] Breathing Breathing is important in the Pilates method, In Return to Life, Pilates devotes a section of his introduction specifically to breathing "bodily house-cleaning with blood circulation",[19] He saw considerable value in increasing the intake of oxygen and the circulation of this oxygenated blood to every part of the body, This he saw as cleansing and invigorating, Proper full inhalation and complete exhalation were key to this, "Pilates saw forced exhalation as the key to full inhalation,"[20] He advised people to squeeze out the lungs as they would wring a wet towel dry,[21] In Pilates exercises, the practitioner breathes out with the effort and in on the return,[22] In order to keep the lower abdominals close to the spine; the breathing needs to be directed laterally, into the lower rib cage, Pilates breathing is described as a posterior lateral breathing, meaning that the practitioner is instructed to breathe deep into the back and sides of his or her rib cage, When practitioners exhale, they are instructed to note the engagement of their deep abdominal and pelvic floor muscles and maintain this engagement as they inhale, Pilates attempts to properly coordinate this breathing practice with movement, including breathing instructions with every exercise, “Above all, learn to breathe correctly,â€�[23] Powerhouse Students are taught to use their “powerhouseâ€� throughout life’s daily activities, According to Joseph Pilates, the powerhouse is the centre of the body and if strengthened, it offers a solid foundation for any movement, This power engine is a muscular network which provides control over the body and comprises all the front, lateral and back muscles found between the upper inner thighs and arm pits, The Powerhouse is activated effectively by hollowing of the deep abdominals, by drawing the navel back into the spine in a zipping-up motion, from the pubic bone to the breast bone thereby engaging the heels, the back of the inner thighs, the deep, lower-back muscles, and the muscles surrounding the sitting bones and tailbone area without inhibiting the natural function of the diaphragm—that is without the practitioner holding their breath either from lifting the chest upwards or contracting the chest, In the sitting position the power engine elevates the torso and places the center of gravity at its highest and most efficient position; in prone position it elongates the body bidirectionally to reduce weight in the upper body; in supine position it elongates the body bidirectionally and places the center of gravity again at its highest and most efficient position, Precautions Safety is always involved in every aspect of the Pilates work-out, therefore there are precautions, modifications and protocols developed over decades within the knowledge of Pilates itself, that a fully qualified Pilates instructor should know and follow when working-out people with certain conditions, e,g,, during pregnancy, after birth, or with specific issues with their body, Safe teaching involves additional comprehensive inspection of the Pilates apparatus regularly and the way it is set up prior to a lesson,[24] Pilates in recent years In recent years the term “Pilatesâ€� has entered the mainstream, Following an unsuccessful trademark lawsuit, a U,S, federal court ruled the term “Pilatesâ€� generic and free for unrestricted use,[25] As a result, anyone in the United States, trained or untrained, can offer “Pilatesâ€� to the public, See also Core stability Feldenkrais Method Squatting position Alexander technique ------------------------------------------------------------------ SOME GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT Physical exercise From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Exercise) "Workout" redirects here, For other uses, see Workout (disambiguation), "Exercise" redirects here, For other uses, see Exercise (disambiguation), Page semi-protected Participant in a triathlon at Catoctin Mountain in 2005 Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness, It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment, Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity,[1][2] It also improves mental health, helps prevent depression, helps to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, and can even augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which is also found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem,[3] Childhood obesity is a growing global concern[4] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity, Health care providers often call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of proven benefits that it provides,[5][6] Contents 1 Classification 1,1 Types of exercise 1,2 Categories of physical exercise 1,3 Categories 2 Health effects 2,1 Cardiovascular system 2,2 Immune system 2,3 Brain function 2,4 Depression 2,5 Sleep 2,6 Excessive exercise 2,7 Myokine research 3 Public health measures 4 Exercise trends 5 Nutrition and recovery 6 History 7 In other animals 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links Classification Types of exercise Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types,[7] depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improve the range of motion of muscles and joints,[8] Aerobic exercises, such as cycling, swimming, walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hiking or playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance,[9] Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training, functional training, eccentric training or sprinting and high-intensity interval training, increase short-term muscle strength,[10] Categories of physical exercise Strength training Agility training Eccentric training Interval training Continuous training Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used, 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow, Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise), Categories Physical exercise is used to improve physical skills, Physical skills fall into the following general categories: Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility, Power, Speed, Coordination, Agility, Balance, and Accuracy,[11] Health effects A common elliptical training machine US Marines exercising on the USS Bataan Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system, Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ, That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases,[12] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol,[13] which causes many health problems, both physical and mental,[14] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals,[15] According to the World Health Organization, lack of physical activity contributes to approximately 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of falls in the elderly, and 10% of breast cancer and colon cancer,[16] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 Max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality,[17] Exercise in space: Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, works out at the Unity node of the International Space Station using the short bar of the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform pull-ups to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can increase opioid peptides (a,k,a, endorphins, naturally occurring opioids that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters are responsible for exercise-induced euphoria and have been shown to be addictive), increase testosterone and growth hormone,[18] effects that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise, More recent research[19][20] indicates that anandamide may play a greater role than endorphins in "runner's high", However, training at high intensity for long periods of time, or without proper warmup beforehand and cooldown afterwards, can lead to an increased risk of injury and overtraining,[citation needed] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training), Such changes are generally beneficial and healthy if they occur in response to exercise, Not everyone benefits equally from exercise, There is tremendous variation in individual response to training; where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others can never augment endurance,[21][22] However, muscle hypertrophy from resistance training is primarily determined by diet and testosterone,[23] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population,[24][25] Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life,[26] Cardiovascular system The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented, There is a direct relation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700 to 2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations, The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active, Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age), ,,, persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival, ,,, Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality,[27] Immune system Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness, Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve, Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence, However, another study did not find the effect, Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections, The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar, Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant,[28] Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners,[28] Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects, The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect,[28] Brain function A 2008 review of cognitive enrichment therapies (strategies to slow or reverse cognitive decline) concluded that "physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function",[29] In mice, exercise improves cognitive functioning via improvement of spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis,[30] In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it, Then, over the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists, They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory, Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial, But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response,[31] The mice who were forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes in only one area, According to an author of the study, "our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions,"[32] In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases,[33] For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia,[34] Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage,[35] There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain, Examples are as follows: increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain; increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells[36] and promote synaptic plasticity[37] — possibly improving short and long term memory; increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin,[38] Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells,[39] Depression A number of factors may contribute to depression including being overweight, low self-esteem, stress, and anxiety,[40] Endorphins act as a natural pain reliever and antidepressant in the body,[41] Endorphins have long been regarded as responsible for what is known as "runner's high", a euphoric feeling a person receives from intense physical exertion,[42] However, recent research[19][20] indicates that anandamide may possibly play a greater role than endorphins in "runner's high", When a person exercises, levels of both circulating serotonin and endorphins are increased,[43] These levels are known to stay elevated even several days after exercise is discontinued, possibly contributing to improvement in mood, increased self-esteem, and weight management,[42] Exercise alone is a potential prevention method and/or treatment for mild forms of depression,[44] Research has also shown that when exercise is done in the presence of other people (familiar or not), it can be more effective in reducing stress than simply exercising alone,[45] Sleep A 2010 review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia, The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep, There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep,[46] According to a 2005 study, exercise is the most recommended alternative to sleeping pills for resolving insomnia, Sleeping pills are more costly than to make time for a daily routine of staying fit, and may have dangerous side effects in the long run, Exercise can be a healthy, safe and inexpensive way to achieve more and better sleep,[47] Excessive exercise Too much exercise can be harmful, Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[48] and muscle tissue may develop slowly, Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities,[49][50][51] Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual, For many activities, especially running and cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules, Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern,[52] whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern,[53][54] In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss, Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits,[55] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts,[56] Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood, Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs,[citation needed] Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations, While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging, This must be determined for each individual, Too much exercise can also cause a woman to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea,[57] Myokine research In a 2012 article regarding myokine research, Pedersen and Febbraio concluded that "physical inactivity and muscle disuse lead to loss of muscle mass and accumulation of visceral adipose tissue and consequently to the activation of a network of inflammatory pathways, which promote development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration and tumour growth and, thereby, promote the development of a cluster of chronic diseases, By contrast, the finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a molecular basis for understanding how physical activity could protect against premature mortality,,,, Physical inactivity or muscle disuse potentially leads to an altered or impaired myokine response and/or resistance to the effects of myokines, which explains why lack of physical activity increases the risk of a whole network of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus), cancer and osteoporosis,"[58] Public health measures As of 2011 the effects of community wide interventions to increase exercise levels at the population level is unknown,[59] Signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels,[60] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise, These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity,[61] Exercise trends Main article: Exercise trends Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work,[62] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits,[62] Personal lifestyle changes however can correct the lack of physical exercise, Nutrition and recovery Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise, When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise,[63] History The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity, Marcus Cicero, around 65 BC, stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor,"[64] However, the link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was only discovered in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris,[65][66] Dr, Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease,[66] This link had not previously been noted and was later confirmed by other researchers, In other animals Physical exercise has been shown to benefit a wide range of other mammals, as well as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird,[67] However, several studies have shown that lizards display no benefit from exercise, leading them to be termed "metabolically inflexible",[68][69] A number of studies of both rodents and humans have demonstrated that individual differences in both ability and propensity for exercise (i,e,, voluntary exercise) have some genetic basis,[70][71] See also Portal icon Health and fitness portal Portal icon Medicine portal Portal icon Society portal Portal icon Sports portal Main article: Outline of exercise Active living Behavioural change theories Central governor Exercise hypertension Exercise induced nausea Exercise intensity Exercise intolerance Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Exercise-induced asthma Exergaming Girls on the Run Green exercise Health club Kinesiology Metabolic equivalent Outdoor gym Pyri Supercompensation ------------------- Terms and phrases 1-shaped handstand ankles asana Back bends back leg balancing poses begin belly Bend your knees blanket boat pose bow pose calm abiding chest open child's pose chin corpse pose cushion downward dog elbows exhale Extend eyes fingertips five breaths foot forearm stand front ribs half-wheel hatha yoga head completely drop head to knee headstand hips hold this pose inner thighs inyour Keep your chest Keep your spine knee pose laying on back legs straight Let your head lunge mind mountain pose arms pelvis plank pose pose for three pose Q pose with prayer Prana prayer hands Press your palms push the floor Relaxyour right leg back savasana sequence shamatha shoulder stand shoulder stretch Sitting bones reach Spine stays long squat with prayer standing forward bend standing poses straddle stretch straight legs sun salute three to five toes Try to hold twist vinyasa walking meditation wall warrior warrior three yoga practice acids activity aerobic weight training Anna athletic basic beautiful become BENEFIT blood sugar Brown rice burn cellulite Christa clients complete complex carbohydrates confidence Cynthia daily dance DEAR FIRM diet dumbbells Endorphin energy exercise fat loss feel FIRM Believers FIRM Fuel FIRM instructor FIRM video FIRM workout FIRM's fitness focus fresh glucose goals grams grooming habits intake Jane Fonda keep knees lifestyle look low-fat ltsp MEAL SUBTOTAL meat metabolism minerals MINI-MEAL MINI-MEAL SUBTOTAL movement muscle muscle loss natural never nutritional oils percent physical protein Q WEIGHT REPS remember REPS Q WEIGHT rice Richard Simmons skin strength strength training stretch tapes TARGET MUSCLES tblsp thighs things TIPS FOR BEGINNERS tissue Udo Erasmus vitamins weight lifting weight loss WEIGHT REPS weight training women yogurt 24 Hour Fitness Academies According to Zumba Additional Sources aerobic apparel Aqua Zumba aspiring Zumba baby boomers become belly dancing birthday party body breast cancer bring Zumba build the Zumba cargo pants celebrities Chapter Classes are currently co­founder Alberto Perlman Combine Zumba Convention cumbia currently being offered dance moves devotees exercise feel fitness instructor flamenco founder Beto Perez four basic rhythms gear Gina Grant Gold­Toning gym rats health benefits hips hottest workout routine incorporate investment Jump Start Gold kids lifestyle merengue Neil Neil’s offer Zumba official Zumba participants Pitbull PlayStation pounds processed foods raise money Reggaeton salsa shaking Shakira strength training success stories tango teaching Zumba toning sticks type of workout types of dances Types Of Zumba video game weight loss workout DVD workout video world of Zumba worldwide exercise trainings overview you’re YouTube Zumba Fitness Zumba Gold Zumba(R Zumbathons Zumbatomic Zumbawear accessed aesthetic album American artists audience bachata Barrio beat Calderón Calle 13 Caribbean cidmuc commercial Cuba cultural Daddy Yankee dance dancehall dancehall reggae deï¬�ned Dem Bow dembow di√erent discourse Dominican Republic Don Omar e√ects essay female ï¬�gure ï¬�nd ï¬�rst flow Gasolina gender genre genre’s global Glory Glory’s groups Havana hip-hop hip-hop and reggae identiï¬�ed images influence interview Ivy Queen Jamaican Juan Latin America listen Luny Tunes mainstream male marginal merengue Miami música negra musicians Negra o√ers o≈cial Pacini Hernandez Panama Panamanian performers perreo Plátano Playero political popular music producers Puerto Rican racial radio rappers Raquel record reflection regeton reggae en español reggae’s reggaeton reguetón Renato Residente rhythm Rico Rico’s riddims Rivera salsa samples scene sexual signiï¬�cant sing singers social song sound Spanish speciï¬�c style Tego Calderón timba tion underground Vico Voltio Wayne Marshall woman women Yankee’s York youth ---------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT DIABETES Diabetes mellitus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Diabetes" redirects here, For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation), Page semi-protected Diabetes mellitus Classification and external resources Blue circle for diabetes,svg Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes,[1] ICD-10 E10–E14 ICD-9 250 MedlinePlus 001214 eMedicine med/546 emerg/134 MeSH C18,452,394,750 Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced,[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger), There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM), Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump, This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes", Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency, This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes", The third main form, gestational diabetes, occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level, It may precede development of type 2 DM, Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes, Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications, Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage), Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as stopping smoking and maintaining a healthy body weight, All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications, Insulin and some oral medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugars), which can be dangerous if severe, Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured,[3] Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM; gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM, Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery, Contents 1 Classification 1,1 Type 1 diabetes 1,2 Type 2 diabetes 1,3 Gestational diabetes 1,4 Other types 2 Signs and symptoms 2,1 Diabetic emergencies 2,2 Complications 3 Causes 3,1 Type 1 3,2 Type 2 4 Pathophysiology 5 Diagnosis 6 Management 6,1 Lifestyle 6,2 Medications 6,3 Support 7 Epidemiology 8 History 8,1 Etymology 9 Society and culture 10 Other animals 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Classification Comparison of type 1 and 2 diabetes[4] Feature Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Onset Sudden Gradual Age at onset Mostly in children Mostly in adults Body habitus Thin or normal[5] Often obese Ketoacidosis Common Rare Autoantibodies Usually present Absent Endogenous insulin Low or absent Normal, decreased or increased Concordance in identical twins 50% 90% Prevalence ~10% ~90% Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types",[2] The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes,[2] The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, The rare disease diabetes insipidus has similar symptoms to diabetes mellitus, but without disturbances in the sugar metabolism (insipidus means "without taste" in Latin) and does not involve the same disease mechanisms, The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), Likewise, the term "type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature, Type 1 diabetes Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency, This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic, The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which beta cell loss is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune attack,[6] There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes, which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe, Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs, Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages, Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were in children, "Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes, This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used,[7] There are many reasons for type 1 diabetes to be accompanied by irregular and unpredictable hyperglycemia, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes serious hypoglycemia, including an impaired counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, occult infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e,g,, Addison's disease),[7] These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type 1 diabetes,[8] Type 2 diabetes Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance, which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion,[2] The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor, However, the specific defects are not known, Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately, Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, In the early stage of type 2, the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity, At this stage, hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver, Gestational diabetes Main article: Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness, It occurs in about 2–5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery, Gestational diabetes is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy, About 20–50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes later in life, Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother, Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations, Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome, Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction, In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment, Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function, A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia, A 2008 study completed in the U,S, found the number of American women entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes is increasing, In fact, the rate of diabetes in expectant mothers had more than doubled from 1999 to 2005,[9] This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy and increases the potential for the children of diabetic mothers to become diabetic in the future, Other types Prediabetes indicates a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 DM, Many people destined to develop type 2 DM spend many years in a state of prediabetes which has been termed "America's largest healthcare epidemic,"[10]:10–11 Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a condition in which type 1 DM develops in adults, Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type 2 DM, based on age rather than etiology, Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body's tissue receptors not responding to insulin (even when insulin levels are normal, which is what separates it from type 2 diabetes); this form is very uncommon, Genetic mutations (autosomal or mitochondrial) can lead to defects in beta cell function, Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases, Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes (for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis), Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes (which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed), Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells, The ICD-10 (1992) diagnostic entity, malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM or MMDM, ICD-10 code E12), was deprecated by the World Health Organization when the current taxonomy was introduced in 1999,[11] Signs and symptoms Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are loss of weight, polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger),[12] Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes, Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes, Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis, A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes, Diabetic emergencies People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also present with diabetic ketoacidosis, a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone, a rapid, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, and altered states of consciousness, A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration, Complications Main article: Complications of diabetes mellitus All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications, These typically develop after many years (10–20), but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time, The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels, Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease,[13] The main "macrovascular" diseases (related to atherosclerosis of larger arteries) are ischemic heart disease (angina and myocardial infarction), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, Diabetes also damages the capillaries (causes microangiopathy),[14] Diabetic retinopathy, which affects blood vessel formation in the retina of the eye, can lead to visual symptoms including reduced vision and potentially blindness, Diabetic nephropathy, the impact of diabetes on the kidneys, can lead to scarring changes in the kidney tissue, loss of small or progressively larger amounts of protein in the urine, and eventually chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis, Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, the impact of diabetes on the nervous system — most commonly causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and also increasing the risk of skin damage due to altered sensation, Together with vascular disease in the legs, neuropathy contributes to the risk of diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) that can be difficult to treat and occasionally require amputation, Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness, Several studies suggest[15] a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes, Compared to those without diabetes, the research showed that those with the disease have a 1,2 to 1,5-fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function, and are at greater risk, In the United States, there were approximately 675,000 diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visits in 2010 that involved neurological complications, 409,000 ED visits with kidney complications, and 186,000 ED visits with eye complications,[16] Causes The cause of diabetes depends on the type, Type 1 Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus, A genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i,e,, the genetic "self" identifiers relied upon by the immune system), However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 DM seems to require an environmental trigger, The onset of type 1 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle, Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics,[17] A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than thirty), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization,[4] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders,[2] Those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio,[2] Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk,[18][19] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk,[17] Eating lots of white rice appears to also play a role in increasing risk,[20] A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases,[21] The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes:[22] Genetic defects of ß-cell function Maturity onset diabetes of the young Mitochondrial DNA mutations Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action Defects in proinsulin conversion Insulin gene mutations Insulin receptor mutations Exocrine pancreatic defects Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatectomy Pancreatic neoplasia Cystic fibrosis Hemochromatosis Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy Endocrinopathies Growth hormone excess (acromegaly) Cushing syndrome Hyperthyroidism Pheochromocytoma Glucagonoma Infections Cytomegalovirus infection Coxsackievirus B Drugs Glucocorticoids Thyroid hormone ß-adrenergic agonists Statins[23] Pathophysiology Question book-new,svg This section does not cite any references or sources, Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (November 2009) The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals - one of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted, Mechanism of insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells - insulin production is more or less constant within the beta cells, Its release is triggered by food, chiefly food containing absorbable glucose, Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells (primarily muscle and fat cells, but not central nervous system cells), Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus, Humans are capable of digesting some carbohydrates, in particular those most common in food; starch, and some disaccharides such as sucrose, are converted within a few hours to simpler forms, most notably the monosaccharide glucose, the principal carbohydrate energy source used by the body, The rest are passed on for processing by gut flora largely in the colon, Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells (ß-cells), found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to rising levels of blood glucose, typically after eating, Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage, Insulin is also the principal control signal for conversion of glucose to glycogen for internal storage in liver and muscle cells, Lowered glucose levels result both in the reduced release of insulin from the ß-cells and in the reverse conversion of glycogen to glucose when glucose levels fall, This is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin, Glucose thus forcibly produced from internal liver cell stores (as glycogen) re-enters the bloodstream; muscle cells lack the necessary export mechanism, Normally, liver cells do this when the level of insulin is low (which normally correlates with low levels of blood glucose), Higher insulin levels increase some anabolic ("building up") processes, such as cell growth and duplication, protein synthesis, and fat storage, Insulin (or its lack) is the principal signal in converting many of the bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic direction, and vice versa, In particular, a low insulin level is the trigger for entering or leaving ketosis (the fat-burning metabolic phase), If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not have its usual effect, so it will not be absorbed properly by those body cells that require it, nor will it be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles, The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis, When the glucose concentration in the blood is raised to about 9-10 mmol/L (except certain conditions, such as pregnancy), beyond its renal threshold (i,e, when glucose level surpasses the transport maximum of glucose reabsorption), reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubuli is incomplete, and part of the glucose remains in the urine (glycosuria), This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss, Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst, Diagnosis See also: Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test Diabetes diagnostic criteria[24][25] edit Condition 2 hour glucose Fasting glucose HbA1c mmol/l(mg/dl) mmol/l(mg/dl) % Normal 1,500 Globally, as of 2010, an estimated 285 million people had diabetes, with type 2 making up about 90% of the cases,[4] Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and by 2030, this number is estimated to almost double,[39] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries, The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030,[39] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, perhaps most importantly a "Western-style" diet, This has suggested an environmental (i,e,, dietary) effect, but there is little understanding of the mechanism(s) at present, though there is much speculation, some of it most compellingly presented,[39] History Main article: History of diabetes Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,[40] with an Egyptian manuscript from c, 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine",[41] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes,[41] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or "honey urine", noting the urine would attract ants,[41] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Appollonius of Memphis,[41] The disease was considered rare during the time of the Roman empire, with Galen commenting he had only seen two cases during his career,[41] This is possibly due the diet and life-style of the ancient people, or because the clinical symptoms were observed during the advanced stage of the disease, Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" (diarrhea urinosa), The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd or early 3rd century CE), He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the "Pneumatic School", He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst, His work remained unknown in the West until the middle of the 16th century when, in 1552, the first Latin edition was published in Venice,[42] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 with being overweight,[41] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination,[41] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922,[41] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s,[41] Etymology The word diabetes (/?da?,?'bi?ti?z/ or /?da?,?'bi?t?s/) comes from Latin diabetes, which in turn comes from Ancient Greek d?aß?t?? (diabetes) which literally means "a passer through; a siphon,"[43] Ancient Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (fl, 1st century CE) used that word, with the intended meaning "excessive discharge of urine", as the name for the disease,[44][45] Ultimately, the word comes from Greek d?aßa??e?? (diabainein), meaning "to pass through,"[43] which is composed of d?a- (dia-), meaning "through" and ßa??e?? (bainein), meaning "to go",[44] The word "diabetes" is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425, The word mellitus (/m?'la?t?s/ or /'m?l?t?s/) comes from the classical Latin word mellitus, meaning "mellite"[46] (i,e, sweetened with honey;[46] honey-sweet[47]), The Latin word comes from mell-, which comes from mel, meaning "honey";[46][47] sweetness;[47] pleasant thing,[47] and the suffix -itus,[46] whose meaning is the same as that of the English suffix "-ite",[48] It was Thomas Willis who in 1675 added "mellitus" to the word "diabetes" as a designation for the disease, when he noticed the urine of a diabetic had a sweet taste (glycosuria),[45] This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians, Society and culture Further information: List of films featuring diabetes The 1989 "St, Vincent Declaration"[49][50] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes, Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy, but also economically—expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health—and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments, Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease,[51] Diabetic patients with neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms,[52] In 2010, diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visit rates in the United States were higher among patients from the lowest income communities (526 per 10,000 population) than from the highest income communities (236 per 10,000 population), Approximately 9,4% of diabetes-related ED visits were for the uninsured,[53] Other animals Main articles: Diabetes in dogs and Diabetes in cats In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats, Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected, Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females, In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles,[54] The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious, Diabetic animals are more prone to infections, The long-term complications recognised in humans are much rarer in animals, The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e,g, ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans,[54] SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT DIETING: LOW CARB EATING Low-carbohydrate diet From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption, often for the treatment of obesity, Foods high in easily digestible carbohydrates (e,g,, sugar, bread, pasta) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fats and moderate protein (e,g,, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e,g,, most salad vegetables), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries) are often allowed, The amount of carbohydrate not allowed varies with different low-carbohydrate diets, Such diets are sometimes ketogenic (i,e,, they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis), The Induction phase of the Atkins diet[1][2][3] is ketogenic, The term "low-carbohydrate diet" is generally applied to diets that restrict carbohydrates to less than 20% of caloric intake, but can also refer to diets that simply restrict or limit carbohydrates,[4] Low-carbohydrate diets are used to treat or prevent some chronic diseases and conditions including: cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and diabetes,[5][6][7][8] epilepsy,[9][10][11] chronic fatigue syndrome (see ketosis) and polycystic ovarian syndrome, Contents [hide] 1 History 1,1 Prehistory 1,2 Early dietary science 1,3 Modern low-carbohydrate diets 1,4 1990s – present 2 Practices and theories 3 Ketosis and insulin synthesis: what is normal? 4 Studies on health effects 4,1 Weight loss 4,2 Blood lipids 4,3 Mortality 5 Opinions from major governmental and medical organizations 6 Criticism and controversies 6,1 Water-related weight loss 6,2 Exercise 6,3 Vegetables and fruits 6,4 Micronutrients and vitamins 6,5 Glucose availability 6,6 Other controversies 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading History[edit] Prehistory[edit] See also: Paleolithic: Diet and nutrition As with the paleolithic diet, several advocates of low-carbohydrate diets have argued that these diets are closer to the ancestral diet of humans before the origin of agriculture, and therefore that humans are genetically adapted to diets low in carbohydrate,[12] Direct archaeological or fossil evidence on nutrition during the Paleolithic, when all humans subsisted by hunting and gathering, is limited, but suggests that humans evolved from the vegetarian diets common to other great apes to one with a greater level of meat eating,[13] Some close relatives of modern Homo sapiens, such as the Neanderthals, appear to have been almost exclusively carnivorous,[14] A more detailed picture of early human diets before the origin of agriculture may be obtained by analogy to contemporary hunter-gatherers, According to one survey of these societies, a relatively low carbohydrate (22–40% of total energy), animal food-centered diet is preferred "whenever and wherever it [is] ecologically possible", and where plant foods do predominate, carbohydrate consumption remains low because wild plants are much lower in carbohydrate and higher in fiber than modern domesticated crops,[15] Primatologist Katherine Milton, however, has argued that the survey data on which this conclusion is based inflates the animal content of typical hunter-gatherer diets; much of it was based on early ethnography, which may have overlooked the role of women in gathering plant foods,[16] She has also highlighted the diversity of both ancestral and contemporary foraging diets, arguing that there is no evidence that humans are especially adapted to a single paleolithic diet over and above the vegetarian diets characteristic of the last thirty million years of primate evolution,[17] The origin of agriculture brought about a rise in carbohydrate levels in human diets,[18] The industrial age has seen a particularly steep rise in refined carbohydrate levels in Western societies, as well as urban societies in Asian countries like India, China, Japan etc, Early dietary science[edit] In 1797, John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications, A very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the 19th century,[19][20] In 1863, William Banting, a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread, butter, milk, sugar, beer and potatoes,[21] His booklet was widely read, so much so that some people used the term "Banting" for the activity usually called "dieting",[22] In 1888, James Salisbury introduced the Salisbury steak as part of his high-meat diet, which limited vegetables, fruit, starches, and fats to one-third of the diet, Modern low-carbohydrate diets[edit] In 1967, Irwin Stillman published The Doctor's Quick Weight Loss Diet, The "Stillman Diet" is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet, It is regarded as one of the first low-carbohydrate diets to become popular in the United States,[23] Other low-carbohydrate diets in the 1960s included the Air Force Diet[24] and the Drinking Man’s Diet,[25] Austrian physician Wolfgang Lutz published his book Leben Ohne Brot (Life Without Bread) in 1967,[26] However, it was not well known in the English-speaking world, In 1972, Robert Atkins published Dr, Atkins Diet Revolution, which advocated a low-carbohydrate diet that he had successfully used in treating patients in the 1960s (having developed the diet from a 1963 article published in JAMA),[27] The book met with some success, but, because of research at that time suggesting risk factors associated with excess fat and protein, it was widely criticized by the mainstream medical community as being dangerous and misleading, thereby limiting its appeal at the time,[28] Among other things, critics pointed out that Atkins had done little real research into his theories and based them mostly on his clinical work, Later that decade, Walter Voegtlin and Herman Tarnower published books advocating the paleolithic diet and Scarsdale diet, respectively, each meeting with moderate success,[29] The concept of the glycemic index was developed in 1981 by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates, This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels – with fast digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower digesting complex carbohydrates such as whole grains a slower one,[30] The concept has been extended to include the amount of carbohydrate actually absorbed as well, as a tablespoonful of cooked carrots is less significant overall than a large baked potato (effectively pure starch, which is efficiently absorbed as glucose), despite differences in glycemic index, 1990s – present[edit] A pack of pork from Tesco is labelled with a sticker that says "No Carbs per serving", This is aimed at people on a low-carbohydrate diet, In the 1990s, Atkins published Dr, Atkins New Diet Revolution, and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles, This has been said to be the beginning of what the mass media call the "low carb craze" in the United States,[31] During the late 1990s and early 2000s, low-carbohydrate diets became some of the most popular diets in the US, By some accounts, up to 18% of the population was utilizing one type of low-carbohydrate diet or another at the peak of their popularity,[32] and this use spread to many countries, These were noted by some food manufacturers and restaurant chains as substantially affecting their businesses (notably Krispy Kreme[33]), Most of the mainstream medical community continued to denounce low-carbohydrate diets as being dangerous to health,[34][35][36] The low-carbohydrate advocates did some adjustments of their own, increasingly advocating controlling fat and eliminating trans fat,[37][38] Many of the diet guides and their proponents that appeared at this time intentionally distanced themselves from Atkins and the term low carb (because of the controversies), even though their recommendations were based on largely the same principles (e,g,, the Zone diet),[39][40] As a result, it is often a matter of debate which diets are really low-carbohydrate and which are not, The 1990s and 2000s also saw the publication of an increased number of clinical studies regarding the effectiveness and safety (pro and con) of low-carbohydrate diets (see low-carbohydrate diet medical research), In the United States, the popularity of the low-carb diet trend waned somewhat in the late 2000s,[citation needed] Despite the decline in popularity, this diet trend has continued to quietly garner attention in the medical and nutritional science communities, and also inspired a number of hybrid diets that include traditional calorie-counting and exercise regimens,[6][7][41][42] Other popular low-carb diets focus on the removal of certain foods from the diet, such as sugar and grain, Practices and theories[edit] Today, the term "low-carbohydrate diet" is most strongly associated with the Atkins Diet and other diets that share similar principles, The American Academy of Family Physicians defines low-carbohydrate diets as diets that restrict carbohydrate intake to 20 to 60 grams per day, typically less than 20 percent of caloric intake,[43] Some low-carbohydrate diets may exceed one or more of these definitions, notably the maintenance phase of the Atkins Diet, There is no consensus definition of what precisely constitutes a low-carbohydrate diet, Medical researchers and diet advocates may define different levels of carbohydrate intake when specifying low-carbohydrate diets, For the purposes of this discussion, this article focuses on diets that reduce (nutritive) carbohydrate intake sufficiently to significantly reduce insulin production and to encourage ketosis (production of ketones to be used as energy in place of glucose), The body of research underpinning low-carbohydrate diets has grown significantly in the decades of the 1990s and 2000s,[44][45] Most of this research centers on the relationship between carbohydrate intake and blood sugar levels (i,e,, blood glucose), as well as some related hormone levels, Some evidence suggests blood sugar levels in the human body should be maintained in a fairly narrow range to maintain good health, The two primary hormones that regulate blood sugar levels are insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels, and glucagon, which raises blood sugar levels,[46] These are both produced in the pancreas: insulin from beta cells and glucagon from alpha cells, In western diets (and many others), most meals are sufficiently high in nutritive carbohydrates to evoke insulin secretion, The primary control for this insulin secretion is glucose in the blood stream, typically from digested carbohydrate, Insulin also controls ketosis; in the non-ketotic state, the human body stores dietary fat in fat cells (i,e,, adipose tissue) and preferentially uses glucose as cellular fuel, Diets low in nutritive carbohydrates introduce less glucose into the blood stream and thus evoke less insulin secretion, which leads to longer and more frequent episodes of ketosis, Some research suggests that this causes body fat to be eliminated from the body, although this theory remains controversial, insofar as it refers to excretion of lipids (i,e,, fat and oil) and not to fat metabolism during ketosis,[47] Low-carbohydrate diet advocates in general recommend reducing nutritive carbohydrates (commonly referred to as "net carbs," i,e,, grams of total carbohydrates reduced by the non-nutritive carbohydrates)[48][49] to very low levels, This means sharply reducing consumption of desserts, breads, pastas, potatoes, rice, and other sweet or starchy foods, Some recommend levels less than 20 grams of "net carbs" per day, at least in the early stages of dieting[50] (for comparison, a single slice of white bread typically contains 15 grams of carbohydrate, almost entirely starch), By contrast, the U,S, Institute of Medicine recommends a minimum intake of 130 grams of carbohydrate per day (the FAO and WHO similarly recommend that the majority of dietary energy come from carbohydrates),[51][52] Low-carbohydrate diets often differ in the specific amount of carbohydrate intake allowed, whether certain types of foods are preferred, whether occasional exceptions are allowed, etc, Generally they all agree that processed sugar should be eliminated, or at the very least greatly reduced, and similarly generally discourage heavily processed grains (white bread, etc,), Low-carbohydrate diets vary greatly in their recommendations as to the amount of fat allowed in the diet, The Atkins Diet does not limit fat, Others recommend a moderate fat intake, Although low-carbohydrate diets are most commonly discussed as a weight-loss approach, some experts have proposed using low-carbohydrate diets to mitigate or prevent diseases including diabetes, metabolic disease and epilepsy,[53][54] Some low-carbohydrate proponents and others argue that the rise in carbohydrate consumption, especially refined carbohydrates, caused the epidemic levels of many diseases in modern society, including metabolic disease and type 2 diabetes,[55][56][57][unreliable source?] There is also a category of diets known as low-glycemic-index diets (low-GI diets) or low-glycemic-load diets (low-GL diets), in particular the Low GI Diet by Brand-Miller et al,[58] In reality, low-carbohydrate diets can also be low-GL diets (and vice versa) depending on the carbohydrates in a particular diet, In practice, though, "low-GI"/"low-GL" diets differ from "low-carb" diets in the following ways, First, low-carbohydrate diets treat all nutritive carbohydrates as having the same effect on metabolism, and generally assume that their effect is predictable, Low-GI/low-GL diets are based on the measured change in blood glucose levels in various carbohydrates – these vary markedly in laboratory studies, The differences are due to poorly understood digestive differences between foods, However, as foods influence digestion in complex ways (e,g,, both protein and fat delay absorption of glucose from carbohydrates eaten at the same time) it is difficult to even approximate the glycemic effect (e,g,, over time or even in total in some cases) of a particular meal, Another related diet type, the low-insulin-index diet, is similar except that it is based on measurements of direct insulemic responses (i,e,, the amount of insulin in the bloodstream) to food rather than glycemic response (the amount of glucose in the bloodstream), Although such diet recommendations mostly involve lowering nutritive carbohydrates, there are some low-carbohydrate foods that are discouraged as well (e,g,, beef),[59] Insulin secretion is stimulated (though less strongly) by other dietary intake, Like glycemic index diets, there is difficulty predicting the insulin secretion from any particular meal, due to assorted digestive interactions and so differing effects on insulin release, Ketosis and insulin synthesis: what is normal?[edit] At the heart of the debate about most low carbohydrate diets are fundamental questions about what is a normal diet and how the human body is supposed to operate, These questions can be outlined as follows: The diets of most people in modern Western nations, especially the United States, contain large amounts of starches and often substantial amounts of sugars, including fructose, Most westerners seldom exhaust stored glycogen supplies and hence rarely go into ketosis, This has been regarded by the majority of the medical community in the last century as normal for humans,[citation needed] Ketosis had been confused with ketoacidosis, a dangerous and extreme ketotic condition associated with diabetes, and had been regarded by the medical community as harmful and potentially life-threatening, who believe it unnecessarily stresses the liver and causes destruction of muscle tissues,[citation needed] A perception developed that getting energy chiefly from dietary protein rather than carbohydrates causes liver damage and that getting energy chiefly from dietary fats rather than carbohydrates causes heart disease and other health problems, This view is still held by the majority of those in the medical and nutritional science communities,[60][61][62] However, it is now widely recognized that periodic ketosis is in fact normal, and that ketosis provides a number of surprising benefits, including neuroprotection against diverse types of cellular injury,[63] People who eschew low carbohydrate diets cite hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis as a risk factor, While mild acidosis may be a side effect when beginning a ketogenic diet,[64][65] it is benign and should not be confused with diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be life threatening, A diet very low in starches and sugars induces several adaptive responses, Low blood glucose causes the pancreas to produce glucagon,[66] which stimulates the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the blood, When liver glycogen stores are exhausted, the body starts utilizing fatty acids instead of glucose, The brain cannot use fatty acids for energy, and instead uses ketones produced from fatty acids by the liver, By using fatty acids and ketones as energy sources, supplemented by conversion of proteins to glucose (gluconeogenesis), the body can maintain normal levels of blood glucose without dietary carbohydrates, Most advocates of low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins Diet, argue that the human body is adapted to function primarily in ketosis,[67][68] They argue that high insulin levels can cause many health problems, most significantly fat storage and weight gain, They argue that the purported dangers of ketosis are unsubstantiated (some of the arguments against ketosis result from confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis which is a mostly diabetic condition unrelated to dieting or low-carbohydrate intake),[69] They also argue that fat in the diet only contributes to heart disease in the presence of high insulin levels and that if the diet is instead adjusted to induce ketosis, fat and cholesterol in the diet are beneficial, Most low carb diets plans discourage consumption of trans fat, On a high-carbohydrate diet, glucose is used by cells in the body for the energy needed for their basic functions, and about 2/3 of body cells require insulin in order to use glucose, Excessive amounts of blood glucose are thought to be a primary cause of the complications of diabetes; when glucose reacts with body proteins (resulting in glycosolated proteins) and change their behavior, Perhaps for this reason, the amount of glucose tightly maintained in the blood is quite low, Unless a meal is very low in starches and sugars, blood glucose will rise for a period of an hour or two after a meal, When this occurs, beta cells in the pancreas release insulin to cause uptake of glucose into cells, In liver and muscle cells, more glucose is taken in than is needed and stored as glycogen (once called 'animal starch'),[70] Diets with a high starch/sugar content, therefore, cause release of more insulin and so more cell absorption, In diabetics, glucose levels vary in time with meals and vary a little more as a result of high carbohydrate content meals, In non-diabetics, blood sugar levels are restored to normal levels within an hour or two, regardless of the content of a meal, While there are essential fatty acids (EFA) and essential amino acids (EAA) and while a diet devoid of EFA or EAA will result in eventual death, a diet completely without carbohydrates can be maintained indefinitely because fatty acids include a carbohydrate backbone (glycerol),[71] There are essential fatty acids and amino acids for structural building blocks, not energy, EFA and EAA will be converted into intermediates for the carbohydrate metabolism, even if it depletes their essential stocks, However, a very low carbohydrate diet (less than 20g per day) may negatively affect certain biomarkers[72] and produce detrimental effects in certain types of individuals (for instance, those with kidney problems), The opposite is also true – for instance, clinical experience suggests very low carbohydrate diet for patients with metabolic syndrome,[73] Studies on health effects[edit] Main article: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets Because of the substantial controversy regarding low-carbohydrate diets and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies, it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus,[74] Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century,[75][76] most directly relevant scientific studies have occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s and, as such, are relatively new, Researchers and other experts have published articles and studies that run the gamut from promoting the safety and efficacy of these diets[77][78] to questioning their long-term validity[79][80] to outright condemning them as dangerous,[81][82] A significant criticism of the diet trend was that there were no studies that evaluated the effects of the diets beyond a few months, However, studies emerged which evaluate these diets over much longer periods, controlled studies as long as two years and survey studies as long as two decades,[77][83][84][85][86] Weight loss[edit] A 2003 meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials found that "low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1-year,"[87][88][89] A 2007 JAMA study comparing the effectiveness of the Atkins low-carb diet to several other popular diets concluded "In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets,"[84] A July 2009 study of existing dietary habits associated a low carbohydrate diet with obesity, although the study drew no explicit conclusion regarding the cause: Whether the diet resulted in the obesity or the obesity motivated people to adopt the diet,[90] A 2013 meta-analysis that included only randomized controlled trials with one year or more of follow-up found that "Individuals assigned to a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a low fat diet in the long term, "[91] One theory is that one of the reasons people lose weight on low carbohydrate diet is related to the phenomenon of spontaneous reduction in food intake,[92] Blood lipids[edit] Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered,[93] However, the type of LDL cholesterol should also be taken into account here as it could be that small dense LDL is decreased and larger LDL molecules are increased with low carbohydrate diets[citation needed], The health effects of the different molecules are still being elucidated and many cholesterol tests do not account for such details, but it is thought that small, dense LDL is problematic and large LDL is not, A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found that measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets, The authors of this review also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets, and concluded that "evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1-year," but they also called for more long-term studies,[94] Mortality[edit] A study of more than 100,000 people over more than 20 years within the Nurses' Health Study observationally concluded that a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetables, with a large proportion of proteins and oils coming from plant sources, decreases mortality with a hazard ratio of 0,8,[95] In contrast, a low-carbohydrate diet with largely animal sources of protein and fat increases mortality, with a hazard ratio of 1,1,[95] This study, however, has been met with criticism, due to the unreliability of the self-administered food frequency questionnaire, as compared to food journaling,[96] as well as classifying "low-carbohydrate" diets based on comparisons to the group as a whole (decile method) rather than surveying dieters following established low-carb dietary guidelines like the Atkins or Paleo diet,[97] Opinions from major governmental and medical organizations[edit] Although opinions regarding low-carbohydrate diets vary greatly throughout the medical and nutritional science communities, major government bodies as well as major medical and nutritional associations have generally opposed this nutritional regimen, In recent years, however, some[who?] of these same organizations have gradually begun to relax their opposition to the point that some have even voiced cautious support for low-carbohydrate diets[citation needed], The following are official statements from some of these organizations, American Academy of Family Physicians The AAFP released a discussion paper on the Atkins Diet specifically in 2006, Although the paper expresses reservations about the Atkins plan they acknowledge it as a legitimate weight loss approach,[98] American Diabetes Association The ADA revised their Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes in 2008 to acknowledge low-carbohydrate diets as a legitimate weight-loss plan,[99][100][101] The recommendations fall short of endorsing low-carbohydrate diets as a long-term health plan nor do they give any preference to these diets, Nevertheless, this is perhaps the first statement of support—albeit for the short-term—by one of the foremost medical organizations,[102][103] In its 2009 publication of Clinical Practice Recommendations, the ADA again reaffirmed its acceptance of carbohydrate-controlled diets as an effective treatment for short-term (up to one year) weight loss among obese people suffering from type two diabetes,[104] American Dietetic Association As of 2003 in commenting on a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association reiterated the association's belief that "there is no magic bullet to safe and healthful weight loss,"[105] The Association specifically endorses the high-carbohydrate diet recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, They have stated "Calories cause weight gain, Excess calories from carbohydrates are not any more fattening than calories from other sources, Despite the claims of low-carb diets, a high-carbohydrate diet does not promote fat storage by enhancing insulin resistance,"[106] American Heart Association The official statement from the AHA regarding these diets states categorically that the association "doesn't recommend high-protein diets,"[107] A science advisory from the association further states the association's belief that these diets are "associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease,"[34] The AHA has been one of the most adamant opponents of low-carbohydrate diets, Dr, Robert Eckel, past president, noted that the association supported low-fat and low-saturated-fat diets, but that a low-carbohydrate diet could potentially meet AHA guidelines,[108] Australian Heart Foundation The position statement by the Heart Foundation regarding low-carbohydrate diets states that "the Heart Foundation does not support the adoption of VLCARB diets for weight loss,"[109] Although the statement recommends against use of low-carbohydrate diets it explains that their major concern is saturated fats as opposed to carbohydrate restriction and protein, Moreover, other statements suggest that their position might be re-evaluated in the event of more evidence from longer-term studies, Food Standards Agency (UK) The consumer advice statements of the FSA regarding low-carbohydrate diets state that "rather than avoiding starchy foods, it's better to try and base your meals on them,"[110] They further state concerns regarding fat consumption in low-carbohydrate diets, Heart & Stroke Foundation (Canada) The official position statement of the Heart & Stroke Foundation states "Do not follow a low carbohydrate diet for purposes of weight loss,"[111] They state concerns regarding numerous health risks particularly those related to high consumption of "saturated and trans fats", National Board of Health and Welfare (Sweden) In 2008, the Socialstyrelsen in Sweden altered its standing regarding low-carbohydrate diets,[112][113] Although formal endorsement of this regimen has not yet appeared, the government has given its formal approval for using carbohydrate-controlled diets for medically supervised weight loss, In recommendation for diets suitable for diabetes patients published in 2011 a moderate low-carb option (30–40%) is suggested, U,S, Department of Health and Human Services The HHS issues consumer guidelines for maintaining heart health which state regarding low-carbohydrate diets that "they're not the route to healthy, long-term weight management,"[114] Criticism and controversies[edit] Water-related weight loss[edit] In the first week or two of a low-carbohydrate diet a great deal of the weight loss comes from eliminating water retained in the body (many doctors say that the presence of high levels of insulin in the blood causes unnecessary water retention in the body),[citation needed][115] However, this is a short-term effect and is entirely separate from the general weight loss that these diets can produce through eliminating excess body fat, A ketogenic diet is known to cause dehydration as an early-onset complication,[116] Exercise[edit] John McDougall, a physician, diet book author, and advisory board member of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, contends that low-carbohydrate diets can inherently cause weakness or fatigue[117] giving rise to the occasional assumption that low-carbohydrate dieting cannot involve an exercise regimen, Advocates of low-carbohydrate diets generally dispute any suggestion that such diets cause weakness or exhaustion (except in the first few weeks as the body adjusts) and indeed most highly recommend exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle,[115][118] There is a large body of evidence stretching back to the 1880s that shows that physical performance is not negatively affected by ketogenic diets once a person has been acclimatized to such a diet,[119] Arctic cultures, such as the Inuit, were found to lead physically demanding lives and yet consume a diet almost completely devoid of carbohydrates,[119] However, studies also indicate that while a low carbohydrate diet will not reduce endurance performance after adapting, they will probably deteriorate anaerobic performance such as strength training or sprint running because these processes rely on glycogen for fuel,[118] A living example that a ketogenic diet can indeed be combined with outstanding achievements in physical exercise is the Olympic biathlon gold medalist Björn Ferry, who won his gold medal after about 6 months on a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet,[120] A ketogenic diet has not been found to impair physical performance of athletes,[121] Vegetables and fruits[edit] Many critics[who?] argue that low-carbohydrate diets inherently require minimizing vegetable and fruit consumption which in turn robs the body of important nutrients,[122] Some critics imply or explicitly argue that vegetables and fruits are inherently all heavily concentrated sources of carbohydrates (so much so that some sources literally treat the words vegetable and carbohydrate as synonymous),[123] While some fruits may contain relatively high concentrations of sugar, most are largely water and not particularly calorie-dense, Thus, in absolute terms, even sweet fruits and berries do not represent a significant source of carbohydrates in their natural form and also typically contain a good deal of fiber which attenuates the absorption of sugar in the gut[124] and lastly, most of the sugar in fruit is fructose which, in obese subjects, has a reported negligible effect on insulin levels,[125] Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods (note that in the context of these diets fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate), Some vegetables like potatoes and carrots have high concentrations of starch as do corn and rice, Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, cauliflower, and peppers,[126] The Atkins Diet recommends that most dietary carbs come from vegetables, Nevertheless debate remains as to whether restricting even just high-carbohydrate fruits, vegetables, and grains is truly healthy,[127] Contrary to the recommendations of most low-carbohydrate diet guides, some individuals may choose to avoid vegetables altogether in order to minimize carbohydrate intake, Low-carbohydrate vegetarianism is also practiced, Raw fruits and vegetables are packed with an array of other protective chemicals like vitamins, flavonoids and sugar alcohols, Some of those molecules help safeguard against the over-absorption of sugars in the human digestive system,[128][129] Industrial food raffination depletes some of those beneficial molecules to various degrees, including almost total removal in many cases,[130][131] Micronutrients and vitamins[edit] The major low-carbohydrate diet guides generally recommend multi-vitamin and mineral supplements as part of the diet regimen which may lead some to believe that these diets are nutritionally deficient, The primary reason for this recommendation is that if the switch from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet is rapid, the body can temporarily go through a period of adjustment during which the body may require extra vitamins and minerals (the reasons have to do with the body's releasing excess fluids that were stored during high-carbohydrate eating),[citation needed] In other words, the body goes through a temporary "shock" if the diet is changed to low-carbohydrate dieting quickly just as it would changing to a high-carbohydrate diet quickly, This does not, in and of itself, indicate that either type of diet is nutritionally deficient,[citation needed] While it is true that many foods that are rich in carbohydrates are also rich in vitamins and minerals, there are many low-carbohydrate foods that are similarly rich in vitamins and minerals,[132] Glucose availability[edit] A common argument in favor of high-carbohydrate diets is that most carbohydrates break down readily into glucose in the bloodstream and, therefore, the body does not have to work as hard to get its energy in a high-carbohydrate diet as a low-carbohydrate diet, This argument, by itself, is incomplete, Although many dietary carbohydrates do break down into glucose, most of that glucose does not remain in the bloodstream for long, Its presence stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to release insulin which has the effect of causing about 2/3 of body cells to take in glucose, and to cause fat cells to take in fatty acids and store them, As the blood glucose level falls, the amount of insulin released is reduced; the entire process is completed in non-diabetics in an hour or two after eating,[133] High-carbohydrate diets require more insulin production and release than low-carbohydrate diets[citation needed] and there is some evidence that the increasingly large percentage of calories consumed as refined carbohydrates is positively correlated with the increased incidence of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes,[134] In addition, this claim neglects the nature of the carbohydrates ingested, Some are indigestible in humans (e,g,, cellulose), some are poorly digested in humans (e,g,, the amylose starch variant), and some require considerable processing to be converted to absorbable forms, In general, uncooked or unprocessed (e,g,, milling, crushing, etc,) foods are harder (typically much harder) to absorb and so do not raise glucose levels as much as might be expected from the proportion of carbohydrate present, Cooking (especially moist cooking above the temperature necessary to expand starch granules), and mechanical processing, both considerably raise the amount of absorbable carbohydrate and reduce the digestive effort required, Analyses which neglect these factors are misleading and will not result in a working diet, or at least one which works as intended, (See Catching Fire, Richard Wrangham) In fact, there is some evidence that the human brain – the largest consumer of glucose in the body – can operate more efficiently on ketones,[135][not in citation given] Other controversies[edit] In 2004, the Canadian government ruled that foods sold in Canada could not be marketed with reduced or eliminated carbohydrate content as a selling point because reduced carbohydrate content was not determined to be a health benefit, and that existing "low carb" and "no carb" packaging would have to be phased out by 2006,[citation needed] Some variants of low carbohydrate diets involve substantially lowered intake of dietary fiber which can result in constipation if not supplemented,[citation needed] For example, this has been a criticism of the Induction phase of the Atkins diet (the Atkins diet is now clearer about recommending a fiber supplement during Induction), Most advocates today argue that fiber is a "good" carbohydrate and encourage a high-fiber diet, It has been hypothesized that a diet-related change in blood acidity can lead to bone loss through a process called ketoacidosis, as mentioned earlier in this article, However ketoacidosis, which is often confused with ketosis, is an acute medical condition caused by extreme fasting or as a symptom of untreated diabetes, and is not likely to be induced by an otherwise adequate low-carbohydrate diet, One of the occasional side effects of a ketogenic diet is a noticeable smell of ketones in the urine, perspiration, and breath,[136] This is caused by the presence of larger than usual amounts of the three ketone bodies normally produced during fat metabolism, One of the ketone bodies, acetone, is released via the lungs and has a characteristic smell of overripe fruit or nail polish remover, In most cases, periodic ketosis (as occurs between widely separated meals) does not cause a noticeable odor, See also[edit] Richard K, Bernstein Cyclic ketogenic diet Richard D, Feinman Gary Taubes Healthy diet High residue diet Insulin resistance Ketogenic diet, a medically supervised diet used to treat epilepsy List of diets Low Carbohydrate High Quality (LCHQ) Low glycemic index diet Low residue diet No-carbohydrate diet Online weight loss plans Shirataki noodles SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Runner's World From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification, Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed, (October 2011) Runner's World Editor-in-Chief David Willey Categories Health Running Marathons Frequency Monthly Publisher Rodale Press Total circulation (December 2012) 710,618[1] First issue 1966 Country United States Based in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, United States Language English Website runnersworld,com ISSN 0897-1706 Runner's World is a globally circulated monthly magazine for runners of all skills sets, published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, in the United States, Recognized as the worldwide authority on running information, the mission of Runner’s World is to inform, advise and motivate runners of all ages and abilities, Runner’s World aims to help runners achieve their personal health, fitness and performance goals while inspiring them with vivid, memorable storytelling, Contents 1 Beginnings 2 Purchased by Rodale Press 3 International circulation 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Beginnings Runner's World was originally launched in 1966 by Bob Anderson as Distance Running News, and Anderson published the magazine by himself for several years from his home in Manhattan, Kansas, Runner and writer Hal Higdon had been writing for the magazine since the beginning (2nd edition), In 1969, Anderson changed the name of the magazine to Runner's World,[2] He brought on Joe Henderson as chief editor and moved the editorial offices, now named World Publications, to Mountain View, California, Runner's World thrived during the 1970s "running boom", even in the face of competition from the New York-based magazine, The Runner, Purchased by Rodale Press In the early 1980s, Bob Anderson sold a good portion of his publications, including Runner's World,[citation needed] Some of Anderson's books went out of print while others were distributed by Macmillan Publishing,[citation needed] Robert Rodale of Rodale Press, purchased Runner's World and the editorial offices moved to Rodale's base in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, Joe Henderson did not move to Emmaus, and stepped down as editor, though he remained associated with the magazine until 2003, Random House bought the running log, which was published under the Runner's World name for decades after the sale, Not long after buying Runner's World, Rodale bought The Runner,[3] and merged the two magazines, keeping the Runner's World name and some writers, including Amby Burfoot who became the editor (a post he held until 2003), Runner's World remained strong through the so-called "second running boom" in the late 1990s, In 2004, the magazine had a full redesign, Since then, the magazine has won several awards including being ranked #1 on Adweek's Hot List,[citation needed] #6 on Advertising Age's "A-List";[citation needed] been recognized for having the "Creative Team of the Year",[citation needed] and most notably has been nominated three times for National Magazine Awards,[citation needed] Also, since the redesign, the magazine's circulation has increased from 525,000 to 650,000[citation needed] at a time when most consumer magazines' circulations have declined,[citation needed] and advertising pages and revenue remain at an all time high,[citation needed] The vice-president and publisher of Runner's World's United States' edition is Christopher Lambiase and its editor is David Willey,[citation needed] In February 2007, Rodale acquired Running Times magazine with the objective of getting the magazine back on its original mission to serve the front of the pack,[citation needed] International circulation Since the early 1990s, Runner's World has expanded outside the United States, currently with 14 international editions, The first was a United Kingdom edition wholly owned by NatMag Rodale, a joint venture between Rodale Inc, and The Hearst Corporation in the UK, Editions in Australia/New Zealand, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands/Belgium, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Spain, and Sweden are published either as joint ventures or through licensing arrangements with publishers in those countries, Editors in each country have access to editorial content from the U,S, edition, but also publish their own original content with local flavor, See also Bob Anderson John Bingham Browning Ross -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Road running From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Road running in a U,S, Air Force marathon People taking part in the Bristol Half Marathon Athletes at the start of a 10-mile race in Gloucestershire, UK, 1990 Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running), These events would be classified as long distance according to athletics terminology, with distances typically ranging from 5 kilometers to 42,2 kilometers in the marathon, They may involve large numbers of runners or wheelchair entrants, Road running is part of a group of road events known as "road races", Road running may offer those involved a range of challenges and interests such as dealing with hills, sharp bends, varied surfaces, inclement weather, and involvement in a large group, Aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to use oxygen, is the biggest factor contributing to success,[citation needed] The impact of running on roads puts more stress on the feet, knees and lower back than running on dirt or grass, It can compensate by providing a consistent, level surface, It may put less strain on the Achilles tendon,[1] Contents 1 Courses 2 Ultrarunning 3 Multiday running 4 Participation 5 Governing body and international organisations 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Courses Race courses are usually held on the streets of major cities and towns, but can be on any road, The IAAF recognizes nine common distances for road races: 10 kilometres (6,2 mi), 15 kilometres (9,3 mi), 20 kilometres (12 mi), half-marathon (21,097 km or 13,1 mi), 25 kilometres (16 mi), 30 kilometres (19 mi), marathon (42,195 km or 26,2 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), and Ekiden marathon relay,[2] Other common distances include 5 kilometres (3,1 mi), 8 kilometres (5,0 mi), 12 kilometres (7,5 mi), and 10 miles (16 km), Some major events have unique distances, The "Round the Bays" run in Auckland, New Zealand is 8,4 kilometres (5,2 mi); the Falmouth Road Race in Falmouth, Cape Cod is 7,1 miles (11,4 km); "City to Surf" in Sydney, Australia is 14 kilometres (8,7 mi); Honolulu's "Great Aloha Run" is 8,15 miles (13,12 km); the "King Island Imperial 20"[3] is 32 kilometres (20 mi) long; and the "Charleston Distance Run" in Charleston, West Virginia is 15 miles (24 km), Most road race courses are certified to be accurate to within 0,1%, that is, to within 10 m for a 10 km race,[4] Certified courses are often intentionally lengthened by one metre per km to ensure that they are not short of the stated distance, A Jones Counter attached to a bicycle is used to measure course length, Remeasurement to verify the length is undertaken when a world record is set on a course, Ultrarunning See also: Ultramarathon Running that covers a distance farther than a marathon is called ultrarunning; the event is an ultramarathon, Such events can be measured in distance (for example, 100 kilometers) or by time (whoever has run the farthest after 24 hours), Examples include the London to Brighton run in England which is just over 54 miles (87 km), the Comrades Marathon run between Pietermaritzburg and Durban in South Africa which is about 89 kilometres (55 mi), and the Badwater Ultramarathon between Death Valley and Mount Whitney in the United States which is 135 miles (217 km) (with a net elevation gain of over 4,500 meters, almost 15,000 feet), Multiday running See also: Multiday races Beyond the ultramarathon lie the multiday and stage races, These events include current events such as the Self-Transcendence 6 & 10 day and 3100 mile races in New York, Trans-America, Trans-Gaul, Trans-Korea, Trans-Europe race and the cross Germany race - the Deutschlandlauf, In these events runners have to complete as many miles as possible in the given time limit - the go-as-you-please style or have to complete a given distance in a set time such as the daily stages of the trans-country races where cut-offs are enforced, Participation Road running is unique among athletic events because in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to participate in the same event as members of running clubs and even current world-class champions, Though often race times are recorded manually by race organizers, sometimes road races feature electronic timing using transponders, Road races are often community-wide events that highlight or raise money for an issue or project, In the USA, Susan G, Komen's Race for the Cure is held nationwide to raise breast cancer awareness, This race is also run in Germany, Italy and Puerto Rico, Similarly, Race for Life holds races throughout the UK to raise money for Cancer Research, First person "race reports" frequently appear on the Dead Runners Society electronic mailing list, Dublin, Ireland's Women's Mini-Marathon is said to be the largest all-female event of its kind in the world,[5] Governing body and international organisations The international governing body for road racing is the IAAF, National governing bodies which are affiliated to the IAAF are responsible for road races held in their country, Of the thousands of road races held each year, 238 races, including some premier ones, are members of the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS), Many race organizers (or the running clubs which conduct the races) are members of the Road Runners Club of America, In addition, the USA Track & Field plays a role in selecting representatives for certain international competitions under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, Competitors from around the world participate in what are dubbed the "elite" races for cash prizes, Kenyans and Ethiopians are renowned for their skill and it is rare for a race's top finishers not to include competitors from these countries, Elite level road running series include the World Marathon Majors, the Great Run series, and IAAF Road Race Label Events, See also Fell running Cross country running List of largest running events Orienteering Track running Trail running -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Cooking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the preparation of food by heating, For food preparation generally, see Food preparation, Modern fruit salad and a "Russian cigarette" pastry stuffed with cottage cheese Cooking is the art or practice of preparing food with the use of heat or cold for consumption, Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions, Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training, Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat, most notably as in Ceviche, a traditional South American dish where fish is cooked with the acids in lemon or lime juice, Sushi also utilizes a similar chemical reaction between fish and the acidic content of rice glazed with vinegar, Chicken, pork and bacon-wrapped corn cooked in a barbecue smoker Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans, and some scientists believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution,[1] Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago, The development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients, New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques, Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation,[2] Contents 1 History 2 Ingredients 2,1 Carbohydrates 2,2 Fats 2,3 Proteins 2,4 Vitamins and minerals 2,5 Water 3 Methods 4 Cooking and health 4,1 Food safety 4,2 Effects on nutritional content of food 4,3 Cooking and carcinogens 4,4 Other health issues 5 Science of cooking 6 Home-cooking vs, factory cooking 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History See also: Culinary arts The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with USA and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject, Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page, (November 2012) Historical oven cooking depicted in a painting by Jean-François Millet Cooking utilizes many foods, There is no clear archaeological evidence when food was first cooked, Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires began only about 250,000 years ago, when hearths started appearing,[3] Phylogenetic analysis by Chris Organ, Charles Nunn, Zarin Machanda, and Richard Wrangham suggests that cooking may have been invented as far back as 1,8 million to 2,3 million years ago,[4] Other researchers believe that cooking was invented as recently as 40,000 or 10,000 years ago, Evidence of fire is inconclusive, as wildfires started by lightning-strikes are still common in East Africa and other wild areas, and it is difficult to determine when fire was first used for cooking, as opposed to just being used for warmth or for keeping predators away, Wrangham proposed cooking was instrumental in human evolution, as it reduced the time required for foraging and led to an increase in brain size, He estimates the percentage decrease in gut size of early humans directly correlates to the increase in brain size,[5] Most other anthropologists, however, oppose Wrangham,[6] stating that archeological evidence suggests that cooking fires began in earnest only about 250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint appear across Europe and the Middle East, Two million years ago, the only sign of fire is burnt earth with human remains, which most other anthropologists consider to be mere coincidence rather than evidence of intentional fire,[7] The mainstream view among anthropologists is that the increases in human brain size occurred well before the advent of cooking, due to a shift away from the consumption of nuts and berries to the consumption of meat,[8][9] Food has become a part of material culture, and cuisine is much more than a substance, In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, food was a classic marker in Europe, However, in the nineteenth century, cuisine became a defining symbol of national identity, The discovery of the New World represented a major turning point in the history of food because of the movement of foods from and to Europe, such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn, yams, and beans, Food in America consisted of traditions that were adapted from England, but up until the end of this century, the presence of new ingredients along with the contact between diverse ethnic groups influenced experimentation, Industrialization was also a turning point that changed how food affected the nation, During the period of industrialization, food began to be mass-produced, mass marketed, and standardized, Factories processed, preserved, canned, and packaged a wide variety of foods, and processed cereals quickly became a defining feature of the American breakfast, In the twenties, freezing methods as well as the earliest cafeterias and fast food establishments emerged, This point in time is when processed and nationally distributed foods became a huge part of the nation's diet, Along with changes in food, there have also been several changes in nutritional guidelines as well, Since 1916, there have been several different nutrition guidelines issued by the United States government, eventually leading up to the food pyramid,[10] In 1916, "Food For Young Children" along with its sequel for adults, "How to Select Foods" was the first USDA guide to give specific dietary guidelines, Updated in the 1920s to these guides gave shopping suggestions for different-sized families along with a Depression Era revision which included four cost levels, In 1943, the USDA created the "Basic Seven" chart to make sure that people got the recommended nutrients, It included the first-ever Recommended Daily Allowances from the National Academy of Sciences, In 1956, the "Essentials of an Adequate Diet" brought recommendations which cut seven down to four groups that school children would learn about for decades, In 1979, a guide called "Food" was published, which addressed the link between too much of certain foods and chronic diseases, This publication also added "fats, oils, and sweets" to the four basic food groups and cautioned moderation, In 1992, the food pyramid was debuted, The USDA introduced this, which represented proportions of foods in a balanced diet, In 2005, the pyramid got a makeover and was renamed MyPyramid, Lastly, in 2011, "MyPlate" came about, Ingredients Most ingredients in cooking are derived from living organisms, Vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts as well as herbs and spices come from plants, while meat, eggs, and dairy products come from animals, Mushrooms and the yeast used in baking are kinds of fungi, Cooks also use water and minerals such as salt, Cooks can also use wine or spirits, Naturally occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called proteins, carbohydrates and fats, They also contain water and minerals, Cooking involves a manipulation of the chemical properties of these molecules, Carbohydrates Main article: Carbohydrate Grain products are often baked, and are rich sources of complex and simple carbohydrates, Carbohydrates include the common sugar, sucrose (table sugar), a disaccharide, and such simple sugars as glucose (from the digestion of table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, and potato, The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex, Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into simpler sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups, If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelization starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel, Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique, An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked, In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces, In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water, These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces, This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat, Fats Main article: Fat Batter coated and deep-fried shrimp is usually cooked in vegetable oil Types of fat include vegetable oils, animal products such as butter and lard, as well as fats from grains, including corn and flax oils, Fats can reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water, and are often used to conduct high heat to other ingredients, such as in frying or sautéing, Proteins Main article: Protein_(nutrient) Various raw meats Red kidney beans contain protein, Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk, eggs and egg whites, contains substantial amounts of protein, Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts, Mushrooms have high protein content, Any of these may be sources of essential amino acids, When proteins are heated they become denatured (unfolded) and change texture, In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable – meat becomes cooked and is more friable and less flexible, In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites, The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component in baking cakes, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue, Vitamins and minerals Main articles: Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are materials required for normal metabolism but which the body cannot manufacture itself and which must therefore come from external sources, Vitamins come from a number of sources including fresh fruit and vegetables (Vitamin C), carrots, liver (Vitamin A), cereal bran, bread, liver e ( B vitamins), fish liver oil (Vitamin D) and fresh green vegetables (Vitamin K), Many minerals are also essential in small quantities including iron, calcium, magnesium and sulphur; and in very small quantities copper, zinc and selenium, The micronutrients, minerals, and vitamins[11] in fruit and vegetables may be destroyed or eluted by cooking, Vitamin C is especially prone to oxidation during cooking and may be completely destroyed by protracted cooking,[12][not in citation given] Water Main article: Water Water is often used to cook foods such as noodles, Cooking often involves water, frequently present in other liquids, which is both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves, Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used is often based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising, and blanching, Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavor and ingredients – this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making, Methods There are very many methods of cooking, most of which have been known since antiquity, These include baking, roasting, frying, grilling, barbecuing, smoking, boiling, steaming and braising, A more recent innovation is microwaving, Various methods use differing levels of heat and moisture and vary in cooking time, The method chosen greatly affects the end result because some foods are more appropriate to some methods than others, Some major hot cooking techniques include: A Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables, and yorkshire pudding A Braised pot roast dish A diagram of a propane smoker used to prepare smoked foods, Roasting Roasting – Barbecuing – Grilling/Broiling – Rotisserie – Searing Baking Baking – Baking Blind- Flashbaking Boiling Boiling – Blanching – Braising – Coddling – Double steaming – Infusion – Poaching – Pressure cooking – Simmering – Smothering – Steaming – Steeping – Stewing – Vacuum flask cooking Frying Fry – Deep frying – Hot salt frying – Hot sand frying – Pan frying – Pressure frying – Sautéing – Stir frying Smoking Smoking Cooking and health Food safety Main article: Food safety Ddeokbokki is a Korean dish consisting of sautéed rice cakes with vegetables and pork, A cook sautees onions and green peppers on a skillet When heat is used in the preparation of food, it can kill or inactivate potentially harmful organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as various parasites such as tapeworms and Toxoplasma gondii, Food poisoning and other illness from uncooked or poorly-prepared food may be caused by bacteria such as pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Campylobacter, viruses such as noroviruses, and protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Parasites may be introduced through salad, meat that is uncooked or done rare, and unboiled water, The sterilizing effect of cooking will depend on temperature, cooking time, and technique used, However, some bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum or Bacillus cereus, can form spores that survive cooking, which then germinate and regrow after the food has cooled, It is therefore recommended that cooked food should not be reheated more than once to avoid repeated growths that allow the bacteria to proliferate to dangerous level,[13] Cooking prevents many foodborne illnesses that would otherwise occur if the food was eaten raw, Cooking also increases the digestibility of some foods such as grains or lactose because most foods, when raw, are inedible, and some are poisonous, For example kidney beans are toxic when raw or improperly cooked, due to the presence of phytohaemagglutinin which can be inactivated after cooking for at least ten minutes at 100 °C,[14] Slow cooker however may not reach the desired temperature and cases of poisoning from red beans cooked in slow cooker have been reported, Preparation, handling, and storage of food are other considerations in food safety, According to the USDA, the temperature range from 40 °F to 140 °F (4 to 60 °C), is the "Danger zone" where bacteria is likely to proliferate, food therefore should not be stored in this temperature range, Washing of hands and surfaces, and avoidance of cross-contamination are good practices in food safety,[15] Food prepared on plastic cutting boards may be less likely to harbor bacteria than wooden ones,[16] other research however suggested otherwise,[17] Washing and sanitizing cutting boards is highly recommended, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood, Hot water and soap followed by a rinse with an diluted antibacterial cleaner, or a trip through a dishwasher with a "sanitize" cycle, are effective methods for reducing the risk of illness due to contaminated cooking implements,[17] Effects on nutritional content of food See also: Raw foodism A raw tomato sauce with olives, celery, spinach and walnuts on zucchini noodles, A raw vegan lunch Proponents of Raw foodism argue that cooking food increases the risk of some of the detrimental effects on food or health, They point out that the cooking of vegetables and fruit containing vitamin C both elutes the vitamin into the cooking water and degrades the vitamin through oxidation, Peeling vegetables can also substantially reduce the vitamin C content, especially in the case of potatoes where most vitamin C is in the skin,[18] However, research using an artificial gut has shown that in the specific case of carotenoids a greater proportion is absorbed from cooked vegetables than from raw vegetables,[12] German research in 2003 showed significant benefits in reducing breast cancer risk when large amounts of raw vegetable matter are included in the diet, The authors attribute some of this effect to heat-labile phytonutrients,[19] Sulforaphane, which may be found in vegetables such as broccoli, has been shown to be protective against prostate cancer, however, much of it is destroyed when the vegetable is boiled,[20] Cooking and carcinogens In a human epidemiological analysis by Richard Doll and Richard Peto in 1981, diet was estimated to cause a certain percentage amount of cancers,[21] Some of these cancers may be caused by carcinogens in food generated during cooking process, although it is often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase cancer risk, Many food, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both carcinogens and anticarcinogens,[22] Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking meat at high temperature creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans, Researchers at the National Cancer Institute found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done,[23] While eating meat raw may be the only way to avoid HCAs fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates "negligible amounts" of HCAs, Also, microwaving meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90%,[23] Nitrosamines, present in processed and cooked foods, have also been noted as being carcinogenic, being linked to colon cancer, Research has shown that grilling, barbecuing and smoking meat and fish increases levels of carcinogenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), In Europe, grilled meat and smoked fish generally only contribute a small proportion of dietary PAH intake since they are a minor component of diet – most intake comes from cereals, oils and fats,[24] However, in the US, grilled/barbecued meat is the second highest contributor of the mean daily intake of benzo[a]pyrene at 21% after ‘bread, cereal and grain’ at 29%,[24] Baking, grilling or broiling food, especially starchy foods, until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen,[25] Other health issues Cooking dairy products may reduce a protective effect against colon cancer, Researchers at the University of Toronto suggest that ingesting uncooked or unpasteurized dairy products (see also Raw milk) may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer,[26] Mice and rats fed uncooked sucrose, casein, and beef tallow had one-third to one-fifth the incidence of microadenomas as the mice and rats fed the same ingredients cooked,[27][28] This claim, however, is contentious, According to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States, health benefits claimed by raw milk advocates do not exist, "The small quantities of antibodies in milk are not absorbed in the human intestinal tract," says Barbara Ingham, PhD, associate professor and extension food scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, "There is no scientific evidence that raw milk contains an anti-arthritis factor or that it enhances resistance to other diseases,"[29] Heating sugars with proteins or fats can produce Advanced glycation end products ("glycotoxins"),[30] These have been linked to ageing and health conditions such as diabetes and causing obesity, Deep fried food in restaurants may contain high level of trans fat which is known to increase level of low-density lipoprotein that may increase risk of heart diseases and other conditions, However, many fast food chains have now switched to trans-fat-free alternatives for deep-frying,[31] Science of cooking Main article: molecular gastronomy The application of scientific knowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy, This is a subdiscipline of food science, Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as Herve This (chemist), Nicholas Kurti (physicist), Peter Barham (physicist), Harold McGee (author), Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author), Heston Blumenthal (chef), Ferran Adria (chef), Robert Wolke (chemist, author) and Pierre Gagnaire (chef), Chemical processes central to cooking include the Maillard reaction – a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar and heat, Home-cooking vs, factory cooking Although cooking has traditionally been a process carried out informally in a home or around a communal fire, cooking is also often carried out outside of personal quarters, for example at restaurants, or schools, Bakeries were one of the earliest forms of cooking outside the home, and bakeries in the past often offered the cooking of pots of food provided by their customers as an additional service, In the present day, factory food preparation has become common, with many "ready-to-eat" foods being prepared and cooked in factories and home cooks using a mixture of scratch made, and factory made foods together to make a meal, "Home-cooking" may be associated with comfort food, and some commercially produced foods are presented through advertising or packaging as having been "home-cooked", regardless of their actual origin, Chicken with lemons on a large wooden cutting board, A restaurant kitchen in Munich, Germany (Haxnbauer restaurant), A kitchen in Beijing, China with an assortment of foods, There are lots of different kinds of different cultural cooking such as French food,Italian food and many other foods from different types of people and cultures ----- Terms and phrases 75 seconds Adduction ankle weights Back Extension BACK HIP EXTENSORS barbell benefits butt and legs calories carbohydrate chest cooking cooking spray diet dumbbells exer Exercises Sets Reps eyes focused straight fat grams fat-free fiber first flexion Focus your mind focused straight ahead foot position FRONT KNEE EXTENSORS front leg Fruit GLUTES goals Grain hamstrings HIP FLEXORS Leg Curls Leg Extension Leg Press Lift LOW RISK AREA low-fat lower back lower body Lunge Alternating Meal Large glass milk MODERATE RISK AREA move movement percent fat calories performed Post Squat Power Nutrition protein Push quadriceps rack range of motion Return to starting rotation routine seconds 90 seconds Sequence 1 refer Sets Reps Rest shin Side Lunge Smith Machine Snack specific Standing Heel Raises starting position strength training sugar tablespoon teaspoon thigh throughout the exercise tion TRAINER'S TIPS vegetables week whole grain workout yogurt . . .THANKS FOR LOOKING !!! 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Fitness Resistance Bands Set Pull Rope for Strength Speed Agility Training Description: - Strong rubber rope, wear-resistant and durable. - Strength your legs, hip and core muscles to improve running speed, vertical jump, mobility, endurance. - Can use it for various types of training, such as strength, speed, agility, etc. - Lightweight portable, easy to use, you can use it to exercise anywhere. - Great for track and field, running, football, basketball and other sports training. Specification: ... more- Material: rubber - Rope Length: Approx. 53cm/20.87inch - Waistband: Approx. 38 x 8cm/14.96 x 3.15inch (L x W) - Wristband: Approx. 16 x 6cm/6.30 x 2.36inch (L x W) - Maximum Pulling Force: Approx. 20 pounds After receiving the package, please check the package contents. Package Includes: 1 Set of Training Equipment Note: Please be careful when using. Please allow slight size deviation and color difference. Shipping And Handling Policy The buyer is responsible for any applicable import duties and local taxes. Please verify with your customs before making your purchase. Please verify your address during checkout. We are not responsible for any wrong or undeliverable addresses. People always bought together with
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